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ISSN : 1598-7248 (Print)
ISSN : 2234-6473 (Online)
Industrial Engineering & Management Systems Vol.16 No.4 pp.542-548

Situational Impacts on Attitudes & Behavior of Customers at Kish Island Trading Centers

Abdullah Naami*, Ehsan Salimpoor
Islamic Azad University, Business Management Department, Tehran-South Unit, Management Unit, Iran
Corresponding Author,
20170918 20170925 20170928


The attitude of a person expresses the way of thinking, emotions and reactions in response to the surrounding environment. Accordingly, each person plays an influential role on his/her behavior. Thus, to succeed and create more value for customers to reach competitive advantage, focusing on demands, needs and factors affecting their behavior with respect to the complicated & fast changes in the science & technology area along with its impact on the selecting values & standards seems important. Therefore, all business centers should also make an effort to get to know their customers’ needs. Therefore, they should also make an effort to increase their knowledge about their customers’ needs, factors that affect their choices & that to coordinate their goals & method based on their customers’ needs. Hence, this article aims at studying the situational effects on customers’ attitudes & behavior. Kish Island’s business centers are considered as the research statistical society. With respect to the unlimited number of customers, a number of 384 customers were considered as the statistical sample for this research that out of which the data were collected thru questionnaire. Results show that the stimulant has a direct impact on attitude, joy & motivation as it has on acceptance & avoidance.



    In the situation of comparative conditions of the market, gaining an appropriate level in the mind of the customer is of high importance i.e. a customer stays loyal to a specific brand/company. On the other hand, the multiple choices that the customer faced with not only is common in some special consuming markets but also in the business markets. Also, globalization & the tight competition have forced markets so that companies depict their product as more profitable than other companies for their customers. Since the business world has been founded on customer orientation & their satisfaction nowadays, the economy activists think of long-term stay in this field & know well that the breathing oxygen in the business world circles around attracting customers. In today’s competition, organizations are forced to be in line with the latest technology changes & stay updated in addition to creating focal potential in their organization (Aaker, 1999). The competition superiority happens when a strong relationship could be established with their customers & this happens only when customers’ behavior (potentially & practically) be analyzed so that organizations could apply customer orientation attitude in the society. A strong brand could only be a sign of distinguishing a special product from other rivals. Morn & Miner 1384, believe that beliefs, wishes, attitudes & behaviors could be distinguished in three ways; first, thru direct establishment in which belief, attitude or behavior are created directly, states are built on each other & that effect hierarchy is therefore created. Then, the hierarchy introduces the disciplined effects levels that happen based on beliefs, attitudes & behavior.

    Tabatabaee Nasab (2014) conducted a research titled as “clustering customers based on their purchasing taste & studying it with intrinsic inclination toward new things & neo personal aspects.” The current study has been conducted aiming at investigating the relationship between purchase decision making methods, intrinsic neo orientation aspects & personal aspects. In the first step, a consumer is classified in three clusters based on similarity in purchasing style then analyzed the clusters’ behavior according to decision making style, intrinsic neo-orientation aspects & new personality aspects. Results show that there is no significant difference among the three identified clusters in intrinsic innovativeness & neo personality aspects (psychotic, eager for new experience & introspection). However there seems to be a difference among clusters in two neo personality characters aspects (consensus & duty). Thus, the relationship between innovativeness & personality aspects was analyzed. Results indicate that there is a direct relationship between personality psychotic & emotional innovativeness & no significant relationship has been witnessed among other neo personality aspects with cognitive & emotional aspects.

    Park et al. (2010) concluded that sensitive & cognitive innovativeness could lead to different shopping styles. Innovative seekers tend very much to know about quality, price & confusion over selecting right. On the other hand, sensitive innovative seekers seek for knowledge about brand, fashion, creative orientation, immediate shopping (without careful thinking), and loyalty to brand/continuous shopping. According to Robert and John (1982) there is a negative relationship between intrinsic innovativeness & there is a positive relationship between easy use & knowledge about the product.

    Researchers believe that regarding consumers’ beliefs, recognition & behavior, all three could be affected directly & indirectly. Therefore, sometimes people by forming thoughts & believes, reveal an appropriate behavior in accepting or avoiding a specific product. Hence, this study intends to find out the impact of behaviors & situations on consumers in accepting or avoiding products of business centers.


    For people, stimulants are outside states which include different components of the physical atmosphere (Jang and Numkong 2009). Stimulants are known as effects that motivate people (Eroglu et al., 2001). Speaking of using a product undergoing the latest technology, stimulant encompasses users’ perceptions about different specifications of the product such as: design, function & communications that contain his/her experience in purchase & consumption. Product specification points to the tangible & intangible traits of a product like advantages, functions & its usage. A product undergoing a new technology encompasses a combination of traits that may affect its users differently (Lee et al., 2011). Horváth and Sajtos (2002) presented a conceptual model that describes cellphone’s traits divided in three groups:

    Enjoying benefits, experience (fun use), and power in making a contact (expressing oneself). Furthermore; Rindova and Petkova (2007) studied product’s innovation & accordingly presented three aspects of the product; i.e. functional (being new & technological convergence), exponential (similarity to the in the market products in shape) & aesthetics (product’s attraction). With respect to the implemented researches in the past, there are three aspects in the product that may affect the customer’s evaluation of the product.

    1.2.Customer’s Attitude-Behavior Stability

    Target has been defined as a positive or negative feeling toward conducting a behavior. Personal attitude towards behavior is a product of attitudinal believes (mental subjectivity of a person concerning conducting the target behavior may lead to result i) in assessing outcomes (express assessment of the result) (Menon and Kahn, 2002). In theory, action requires claim in which behavior exclusively is driven by the purpose of the action, as a result, this theory is only true about those kinds of behavior that take place with willingness. Although; behavior needs skills, resources & opportunities that are not easy to accomplish which does not fall within the domain of practical potentials of the proved action theory or may be predicted incompletely by this theory.

    1.3.Behavioral Intention

    Indicates level of intention & personal willingness in conducting target behavior. Behavior intention relationship with behavior reveals that people intend to engage in behaviors that are willing to implement (Russell and Pratt, 1980).

    1.4.Internal Modes: Cognitive & Emotional

    Consumer depending on what he believes evaluates a product or a service. The second component is that the emotional (sensitive) reaction to a product which is called the emotional aspect of attitude. When a consumer expresses his/her feelings about a product regardless of being positive or negative, actually is revealing his emotional assessment about the specific product. During the third component, as you may know, he puts his decisions & demands into practice. Scholars say that in buying a product all three components are important & states that peoples’ attitude more or less are based on all the stated above components. Mehrabiyan & Rasel assume that the three basic emotional states in the environmental situa tions intermediate with the acceptance/avoidance behaviors. The three emotional states are: joy-pain, motivateddemotivated, being dominated & being obedient. In other word, emotional states with relations point to internal processes & intermediate structures between external stimulants & people’s reactions (Jang and Nonamka, 2009). To evaluate emotional states, joy & being motivated by Mehrabian & Russel theory has been investigated: concerning products with consumers, good feelings or satisfaction in connection with using the product, had technology in them (Lee et al., 2011). Many researches show that the joy in the people encourages acceptance behaviors (Menon and Kahn, 2002). Everything like acquisition, processing, maintenance & retrieving data in the mind of the consumer is defined as cognitive state. State recognition is conducted based on attitude in this study. Concerning products with the person’s attitude in bearing favorable & unfavorable assessment has pointed out in relation to products (Lee et al., 2011).

    1.5.Reaction (Response)

    People reveal their reaction to the environment using two counterpart way of behavior: accepting & avoiding. Positive activities that may be directed into a specific field are defined as “accepting behavior.” In assessing consumer in real consumption of a product, the accepting/avoidance behavior is defined as the time spent with product accompanied with joy. Emotions along with positive knowing that are made thru products specifications & the environment lead to accepting behavior (Lee et al., 2011).

    1.6.Communication Specifications

    Communication power is considered an important trait of a product with high technology (Lee et al., 2011). Most products have significant messages for special groups of people & their owner’s wants to give information about themselves. Self-assertion could be an important stimulant in preferring & choosing the consumer (Aker, 1999). Self-assertion determines how & to what extent consumers use products with high technology to show their identity & value to themselves & others (Lee et al., 2011). Power of communication for products has been confirmed & supported by many scholars.Table 1Table 2Table 3



    • - Product stimulants have significant impact on customers’ attitude concerning products in business centers.

    • - Product stimulants have significant impact on customers’ joy concerning products in business centers.

    • - Product stimulants have significant impact on customers’ motivation concerning products in business centers.

    • - Product stimulants have significant impact on the nature of the situational factors of products in business centers.

    • - Product stimulants have significant impact on situational specifications of the products in business centers.

    • - Product stimulants have significant impact on traditional & ceremonial position of the products in business centers.

    • - Customers’ attitude in accepting & avoiding business centers’ products have significant impact.

    • - Customers’ joy in acceptance or avoidance of business centers’ products have significant impact.

    • - Customers’ attitude in accepting & avoiding business centers’ products have significant impact.

    • - The nature of situational factors in accepting & declining business centers’ products have significant impact.

    • - Situational traits in accepting & avoidance of business centers’ products have significant impact.

    • - Ceremonial & centered situations of acceptance & avoidance of business centers’ products have significant impact.

    This is a quantitative research with a practical objective. Besides; it is a descriptive research. The preliminary questionnaire has been compiled based on the research’s literature. The research’s society includes all customers who shop at Kish business centers. To determine the size of the sample, Kokran formula was used & with respect to the unlimited size of the society, the sample of the research was 384. Reliability & validity were all tested. Concept & questions validity were also investigated. To test the conceptual validity of the current questionnaire, the elites & experts’ point of view was considered. Furthermore; using conformity factor analysis (CFA), validity of each structure was gained. To test reliability of tools, Alpha Kronbach was used & the result of which are listed in Table 2 that shows an acceptable reliability for all aspects (more than 0.7).

    With respect to the results, Alpha Krumbach for all variables exceeded 0.74 & the questionnaire’s Alpha Krunbach was 0.90 which confirms the questionnaire’s reliability & good credit. Hence; the immediate questionnaire is a suitable tool for assessing research’s variables.

    2.2.Investigating Normal Distribution of Variables

    Before testing the relation between variables, it is necessary to test normality of variables. One of the investigation ways for normality claim is variables’ distribution using Kolmogorov-Smirnoff.

    Zero assumption: Research’s variables have normal distribution.

    Assumption no. 1: Research’s variables do not have normal distribution.

    Results show that the significance level for all variables of the study exceed 0.05, thus; zero assumption i.e. variables’ normal distribution has been confirmed.


    3.1.Studying the Relation between Research Variables & Assumptions Test

    In this section we study & test the proposed assumptions thru path analysis model. After drawing the model & collecting data, estimating the model with a set of known relations among the measured variables starts. Path models are regarded as logic development of regression models. Although path analysis includes models with multiple observed variables, there is a possibility for whatever no. of dependent & independent variables & equations. In the output of the diagram, the significance of all coefficients & parameters of the model is tested. For a coefficient to be significant, the significant numbers should be more than 1.96 or less than -1.96.

    As you can see in Table 4, standard coefficient for stimulant on attitude is 0.52, stimulant on joy 0.50, stimulant on motivation 0.70, and stimulant on the nature of situational factor 0.58, stimulant on situational traits 0.58, stimulant on the ceremonial & traditional situation 0.62.

    As you can see in Table 5, standard coefficient for stimulant on attitude is 8.52, stimulant on joy 6.25, stimulant on motivation 9.12, and stimulant on the nature of situational factor 9.84, stimulant on situational traits 9.76, stimulant on the ceremonial & traditional situation 10.15.

    As you can see in Table 6, standard coefficient for stimulant on attitude of acceptance/avoidance is 0.40, joy on acceptance/avoidance 0.58, motivation on acceptance/ avoidance 0.46, the nature of situational factors on acceptance/ avoidance 0.36, situational traits on acceptance/ avoidance 0.22, the ceremonial & traditional situation on acceptance/avoidance 0.33.

    As you can see in Table 7, standard coefficient for stimulant on attitude of acceptance/avoidance is 4.08, joy on acceptance/avoidance 5.85, motivation on acceptance/ avoidance 4.81, the nature of situational factors on acceptance/ avoidance 3.66, situational traits on acceptance/ avoidance 2.85, the ceremonial & traditional situation on acceptance/avoidance 3.45.

    3.2.Evaluating Appropriateness of the Model

    After modeling & assessing its parameters, the main question which is raised here is whether the measuring pattern is a suitable or not. Answering this question could be only possible thru check fit. In other words; to what extent a model has consistency & agreement with the relative data.

    When a pattern is made specifically with similar specifications that could be assessed & tested easily, then; there are many indexes for its check fit that the most important of which are listed in the following table:

    The most important indexes that are reported in researches are mentioned in the above stated table (Table 8, Table 9). If one of these indexes were not acceptable, it shall not be a reason to decline the pattern (model). On the other hand, it shall be regarded as a weakness in the pattern which may be a result of sampling; the society’s picked sample or any other reason in this regard. The proposed indexes & their comparison with the desired amount for a checked fit pattern indicate that the chosen check-fit is suitable. There is a point here worth noting about the model’s check-fit; though the check-fit confirms structure of the model, it does not approve the fact that it is the only valuable model.


    • - Customers of business centers pay a lot of attention to networking & inside & outside communications. This leads to accessing more information thru informal ways & identifying new opportunities concerning service & new technology.

    • - Evidences of the study shows that in addition to the above stated results technology changes (artifacts) & the innovations springing from it, they are considered as innovative system & these technological & innovative changes lead to technology promotion. Economy & entrepreneurship development have a mutual relationship i.e. innovation & knowledge leads to development in entrepreneurship & consequently economy prosperity. In fact, developing entrepreneurship shall lead to productivity & competitiveness which is of economy development factors.


    With respect to the fact that trading centers require systems to assess their quality level, evaluating the amount of customers’ realized expectations concerning trading centers’ performance in providing services, this pattern seems quite suitable. Therefore; trading centers should constantly be aware of their customers’ likes, demands, needs & expectations so they could continuously promote the quality of their services. Because customers’ expectations change by time & should always bear in mind that meeting customers’ expectation is the main factor in evaluating service system.

    With regard to the practical objectives, some suggestions are presented as it follows:

    • - Kish trading centers products’ to delegate its pricing to its sub-companies which create a competitive market so the tendency to refer to a company that provides better services with the most reasonable price may rise in people; to put it in a better way, the parent company plays a supervising & supporting role & if the demand is not met, the parent company to specify a max price (limited price).

    • - Shop attraction (decoration) is another effective factor in sudden shopping. Thus, it is suggested shop managers give customers more time to be in the shop by creating supplementary entertaining spaces e.g. play grounds for kids, resting spaces etc. inside the shop, so that sudden purchase & product acceptance may happen.

    • - Delegation & giving special discounts to customers of branches to attract customers’ attention

    • - Way of performance & the company’s management reaction in balancing between industry & meeting customers’ demands could affect industrycustomer relationship.

    • - Other ways to increase chances of product acceptance by customers is paying attention to design & architecture inside the store, appropriate coloring, the way staffs dress, ventilation & peace & quiet in the store

    • - It is suggested to increase customers’ presence in the shop, store managers pay special attention to easy commuting in the store & logical connection between shelves & halls of the store, charm & way of putting items in order in the shelves besides being accessible easily.

    • - The staffs care a lot about the industry & so if they are better prepared in knowing more & be updated while greet customers warmly & respectfully besides acting fast in solving customers’ problems not only may increase chances of selling but also may have a perfect impact on customer-industry relationship.

    • - Spreading sales network, agencies & branches all over the country to provide services & introduce the company to people as it is an effective way for keeping in touch with the customer.

    • - Assessing advertising & notifying effects should be considered. Although evaluating all effects of the programs is a tiring task, the outcome shall lead to planning, correcting & modifying activities of notifying & advertising. By studying advertising effects & its link to organizational objectives, making changes in the advertising budget in form & concept of messages of media & communication channels & even time & condition of advertising is open to make better impression.

    • - Governments should consider products of KISH trading centers more than before.

    Practical suggestion for future scientific works:

    With respect to test results of the assumptions, the following are to be considered:

    • Paying attention to marketing of products in trading centers, suitable & right advertising is said to be an effective factor in industry & prerequisite to promote it. Thus, using marketing skills in different fields & appointing managers in such positions in different fields of industry is quite necessary. Empowering firms & active agencies: limited executing power of the government thru delegating the executive affairs to the private sectors with the priority of developing infrastructures & empowering pertinent agencies to industry considering world success patterns & presenting educational & consulting plans on the part of industry managers.

    • Creating common insight & systematic attitude for the beneficiary in the insurance industry & making an effort to reach an appropriate level in the industry.

    • Taking a supporting, leading & supervising strategy towards agencies

    • Notifying about new products

    • Enhancing selling force shall lead to more periodical visits of the companies’ representatives

    • It is suggested to trading centers to classify their customers based on their needs & requirements of each comparable with them & thru this to promote quality of after-sales service.

    • Trading centers managers along with marketing managers are to point to their unique performance in providing services & convenience advertising strategies in comparison to their rivals so they could increase evokes in the mind of their customers. In this line, trading centers should consider the mental position of a brand as a key factor in planning strategy, operation & service promotion & to measure & revise process efficiency thru a comprehensive set of gauges such as customer satisfaction, received value from the customer, keeping customers etc.

    • Holding local & international exhibitions to introduce new products of the trading centers

    • Introducing products features & advantages to customers

    • Enjoying enough distribution & service companies outside of the stock at agencies & sales centers that could be a proper response to the target market & preserve market share in the competitive atmosphere.

    • Media advertising, strong public relation & high experience of the sales staffs together with bank facilities to customers.

    • Satisfaction of brand, complete satisfaction of one brand based on purchasing & consumption & service background by passage of time & their ability to meet customers’ needs & demands which may lead to special value of the brand. Regarding the positive connection between satisfaction of brand & special value of the brand, it is suggested to the managers of companies outside of stock market to make the brand fixed in the mind of customers to identify customers’ different needs & demands at different markets & to meet them. Increasing customers’ satisfaction has enhanced & distinguished a specific brand during the years.

    • Applying youth talent could change innovation concepts for new products using brand-new technology & by performing research projects in line with updated science in this industry could be a pioneer in the field. Also, it is suggested to Kish trading centers that to promote customers mind, to transfer & present all the new development applied on the new innovated products thru their agencies, their catalogs, web sites & holding seminars.



    Conceptual model (Lee et al., 2011)

    Final analysis of variables

    Investigating normal distribution of variables

    Standard coefficient model of the research’s assumptions

    Significant coefficient model of the research’s assumptions

    Significant coefficient model of the research’s assumptions

    Significant coefficient model of the research’s assumptions

    acceptance/avoidance 3.45.

    Test results of the sub-assumptions of the research

    Model fit index


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