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ISSN : 1598-7248 (Print)
ISSN : 2234-6473 (Online)
Industrial Engineering & Management Systems Vol.16 No.4 pp.495-506
DOI : https://doi.org/10.7232/iems.2017.16.4.495

The Impact of Knowledge-Oriented Leadership on Innovative Performance through Considering the Mediating Role of Knowledge Management Practices

Yousef Ramezani*, Zehed Safari, Arezoosadat Hashemiamin, Zahra Karimi
Assistant Professor Department of Management, Attar Institute of Higher Education, Mashshad, Iran
Master student of Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
Master Graduated in Management of Wollongong University, Sydney, Australia
Academic Member of Motahar Institute of higher Education, Mashhad, Iran
Corresponding Author, Y.Ramezani12a@gmail.com
20170808 20170821 20170918

ABSTRACT

Strategists consider knowledge as a basic asset source through passing from source-oriented to knowledge-oriented approach in organizations, and the value of knowledge is evaluated based on how that knowledge is used in organization process, in order to produce goods and services. The purpose of this the study is to evaluate the impacts of aspects of knowledge-oriented leadership on innovative performance through considering mediating role of knowledge management practices in head quarter’s domain of energy consultant engineering of Khorasan. The methodology of this research is descriptive study. Also, the purpose of the study is an applied research. The study population consisted of all employees in head quarter’s domain of energy consultant engineering of Khorasan that includes 200 people. According to Morgan table, the sample size is 130 people that the questioners were randomly distributed among them. The questioner was used for data collection, and LISREL software was used for data analysis. The results of the study proved the impacts of aspects of knowledge-oriented leadership on innovative performance through considering mediating role of knowledge management practices in headquarters’ domain of energy consultant. In this context, the present study hypothesis was confirmed.


초록


    1.INTRODUCTION

    Although the importance and using knowledge management is a necessary and indubitable affair for organizations, recent reports such as management tools and 2011 procedures have shown that there is not adequate satisfaction among managers about using these tools and the result of using them (Rigby and Bilodeau, 2011). Generally, designing and carrying out knowledge management process is a difficult task for managers, and benefits, efficiency and success of this process is heavily depended on the adjustment of this process to organizational factors (Bierly and Daly, 2002). Consequently, managers must provide an ideal situation for actuating and improving using of knowledge management process and its basics for organizations by designing some tolls such as human resource management (Lin, 2011). In addition, they must regulate and provide a perfect defined organizational culture (Donate and Guadamillas, 2010), caring out technological systems (King and Marks, 2008), and dispose organizational conformation (Singh and Kant, 2009), Another important factor is leadership behavior as leaders have significant effects on directing and efficiency of knowledge management in their organizations (Nguyen and Mohamed, 2011). On one hand, leaders can provide conditions that let participants to carry out and grow their transformational skills to contribute their personal knowledge or to have a faster access to relevant knowledge (Crawford et al., 2003). On the other hand, leadership behavior can create important obstacles in production and enforcement of knowledge, as well (Von Krogh et al., 2012). As a result of this it can participate in storing knowledge to avoid co-operation and negative reactions of other knowledge production companies (Lakshman, 2009). Also, the role of leadership in innovation and innovative performance is unavoidable. Human resource strategic management should generate single, comprehensive, contingent, and consistent structure. Moreover, the role of human resource management in employee’s creativity and organization innovative performance is vital. One of the key factor for companies success is their amount of innovation that is relevant to the ability of the company in using innovation, introducing processes, new products and ideas in market and organization. By and large, innovative activities are necessary for companies success (Hult et al., 2005). However, tendency to innovation proves the positive relationship between competitive advantage, new products superior success and financial performance. Firms that tend to innovation value changes protect creativity and provide a situation for employees to feel less fear when they try to carry out their new ideas (Augusto and Coelho, 2009). Innovative performance is defined by innovative inputs. In fact, converting input to output, and finally innovative output is in the connection with firm. Although according to Crawford et al. (2003) innovative performance can be divided into some categories, as innovative output and company performance may influence innovative costs. However, generally firm economical performance can influence three levels of firm: decision for innovation, innovation output, and the innovation output that is in contact with firm innovation and performance (Löfsten, 2014). In spite of the great importance of leadership in knowledge management, researchers has recently started to explain the role of leaders in knowledge management and spend their time on various managing styles for good knowledge management (Lakshman, 2009). To follow this advice the focus of this article is organization leadership as a necessary condition for development and encouragement of knowledge management process with innovation goals. The competitive advantages for these firms need to show and derive benefit from their knowledge assets efficiently, beneficially, and flexibly (Subramaniam and Youndt, 2005). Especially, this research is looking for the answer of how firms can use basic knowledge management advantage in innovation and with organizational leadership. To reach these goals this research has various contributions in this field of study. First of all, researchers rarely pay attention to connection and communication between three separates context parts such as leadership, knowledge, management and innovation. The main focus of this study is the progressive connection between these three parts. To illustrate this point, this article introduces and experiments an academic model to link these three concepts. A variety of researches cover the academic and practical analysis of the relationship between leadership, innovation and special knowledge management processes (Von Krogh et al., 2012). Still, there is a considerable gap in general leadership conditions in explanation and exploration of organization knowledge ad reaching competitive advantages through innovation. This research is taking great steps to fill this gap by studying an appropriate style of leadership for development and adequate protection of this basic knowledge management in innovation. Not paying enough attention to knowledge management and its activities and managing it improperly postpone innovation and innovative performance; as a result of which creativity and innovation will not grow and based on this information the main question is that does the knowledge-oriented leadership aspects impact the innovation performance through considering mediating role of knowledge management practices in headquarters’ domain of energy consultant engineering of khorasan?

    2.LITRUTURE REVIEW

    2.1.Leadership and its Background

    Leadership plays a determinative role in organization, individual and team efficiency. The main reason for some companies, which are not successful in organizational revolution, is the lack of powerful and effective leader. Nowadays, organizational leadership for adaptation to various growth and survival changes in turbulent organizational environment needs special characteristics, which generally are not available for mangers, or they face different problems to achieve them (Moradi et al., 2014). Leadership plays an essential role in human resource development and it indicates the approach of the effect on main changes in whole organization. Leadership is a member in organization to put a pressure on organization to lead it to achieve common goals and targets. One of the most basic management responsibilities is directing and administrating organization human resource. This responsibility that means the effort of manager to motivate inferiors and employees to achieve organization goals is associated with individual and social values. Manager directing responsibility includes three tasks of leadership, motivation, and communication (Jenani et al., 2014). Scientists of liberal arts discuss leadership concept from different views; they know leadership as a part of management responsibilities, while another group considers a wider concept for leadership than management. In spite of the huge attention to the importance and value of leadership, during studying leadership literature this point is considerable that the concept of leadership does not have coherency and agreement. The topic of leadership and its effect on efficiency of mentioned organization have had a long history, and it was investigated and discussed by the scientists of this field; in fact the leadership specialist have chosen various ways to identify the topic of leadership, and its connection with organization efficiency and they have developed different theories according to that.

    2.2.Knowledge-Oriented Leadership

    Although the importance and usage of knowledge management for organizations is a necessary and unquestionable affair, recent reports such as management tools and 2011 processes have shown not enough satisfaction of mangers in using these management tools, and the result of using them (Rigby and Bilodeau, 2011). Generally, designing and carrying out knowledge management processes is a difficult task for mangers, and benefits, efficiency and success of these processes heavily depend on their adjustment to organizational factors (Bierly and Daly, 2002). Therefore, managers must provide an ideal situation for actuating and improving using of knowledge management process and its basics for organizations by designing some tolls such as human resource management (Lin, 2011). In addition, they must regulate and provide a perfect defined organizational culture (Donate and Guadamillas, 2010), caring out technological systems (King and Marks, 2008), and dispose organizational conformation (Singh and Kant, 2009).

    Another important factor is leadership behavior as leaders have significant effects on directing and efficiency of knowledge management in their organizations (Nguyen and Mohamed, 2011). On one hand, leaders can provide conditions that let participants to carry out and grow their transformational skills to contribute their personal knowledge or to have a faster access to relevant knowledge (Crawford et al., 2003). On the other hand, leadership behavior can create important obstacles in production and enforcement of knowledge, as well (Von Krogh et al., 2012). As a result of this it can participate in storing knowledge to avoid co-operation and negative reactions of other knowledge production companies (Lakshman, 2009). In spite of the great importance of leadership in knowledge management, researchers have recently started to explain the role of leaders in knowledge management and spend their time on various managing styles for good knowledge management (Lakshman, 2009).

    2.3.Components and Elements of Knowledge Management

    Two components of knowledge management are:

    • Knowledge storehouses: Knowledge management scheme acts as a knowledge storehouse, which through removing place and time obstacles provides the chance of combination and exchange of thought capital. Knowledge storehouses include file derivers, database servers, team servers, documents managing systems, or websites. The structure of each storehouse depends on the content, or knowledge that is stored or managed (Wang, 2009).

    • Knowledge Plans: The expression of knowledge plan was created in 1990s. Knowledge plans are tools for representation and displaying knowledge and communication between its parts. Knowledge plans are researchable configurations and lists of employees’ special skills (Wang, 2009). Orlando and Calabrese (2006) names five components for knowledge management scheme: leadership, organization, technology, teaching and learning.

    As it mentioned the more focus in area of parts and components of knowledge management scheme is on knowledge plans. By considering mentioned definitions about knowledge plan concept, it can be inferred that the knowledge plan is defined as a tool or device for noticing actual thought assets and capital, knowing and following the place and communication between these assets, which provides knowledge planning process. Knowledge plan only belongs to knowing and following the place and communication between these assets, which knowledge planning process. Knowledge plan is not only about tangible and visible assets, it also shows hidden and implicit knowledge in individuals’ mind and organizational processes. As a consequence, providing and image of organization actual knowledge assets both tangible and implicit before starting to design and carrying out knowledge management drafts is a basic and fundamental step.

    In fact, knowledge plans is a chapter of separation of knowledge management scheme from information management scheme, and it has a special emphasize among all researchers (Fadayinezhad et al., 2011).

    3.TENDENCY TO INNOVATION AND INNOVATIVE BEHAVIOR

    Increasing competition, strong environmental fluctuations, technological changes, and the lack of certainty about environment force organizations to accept innovation as the main part of their strategy. Innovation is defined as a new tool, system, politic, program, process, product or services that can be created in the organization or can be bought out of organization and belongs to the new organization. The definition of innovation is very comprehensive and includes all types of it. Innovation by increasing organization flexibility, its tendency to change and introducing new products and services positively affect company’s long term success (Hult et al., 2005). Tendency to innovation is a strategic attitude, which shows an active and open environment for new ideas and also searching such ideas. One of the key factors for success for firms is their amount of innovation, which is related to the ability of each company in using innovation, introducing new processes, products and ideas in market and organization. Innovative activities generally are important for company’s success (Hult et al., 2005). However, tendency to innovation is an evidence for positive relationship between competitive advantage and superiority success of new products and financial performance. Firms that tend to innovation value changes protect creativity and provide a situation for employees to feel less fear when they try to carry out their new ideas (Augusto and Coelho, 2009).

    3.1.Innovative Performance

    Innovative performance indicates the ability of company for being the first user of new ideas, tools, systems, rules, programs, processes, products and services (Zehir and Özşahin, 2008). Innovative performance is defined by innovative inputs. In fact, converting input to output, and finally innovative output is in the connection with firm. Although innovative performance can be divided into some categories, as innovative output and company performance may influence innovative costs. However, generally firm economical performance can influence three levels of firm: decision for innovation, innovation output, and the innovation output that is in contact with firm innovation and performance (Löfsten, 2014). Generally, innovative performance has two dimensions, innovation practicability and profitability. However, individual innovative performance has three dimensions, production, improvement, and understanding innovative ideas (Salovner and Lioukas, 2003). Innovative performance indicates knowledge utilization and technical innovative activities evaluation in a company. Entirely, in description of innovative performance there are two meanings and concepts. First concept that is more general indicates technical knowledge, creative and innovative actions. According to this, innovative performance can express economical, social product performance and also process performance. Therefore, innovative performance mainly leads on efficient innovative process management and managers must recognize, develop, protect, and allocate resources and abilities continuously in order to achieve competitive advantage. In the second concept, which is petty, innovative performance indicates the number of innovations that are introduced to the market, which means new product, process, systems or companies new tactics. The focus of this study is the petty concept. Categorizing system, innovative performance measures are categorized in five different groups. New products, new production methods, new provision resources, exploiting new markets and new methodology for organizing business. Most researches focus on first two areas of innovation, which mean innovation in product and innovation in process. Product innovation shows new products and services invention and general commercialization.

    3.2.Organizational Learning and Innovation Performance

    Organizational knowledge as organizational learning output is considered as innovation important factors in organizations. Organizational knowledge causes development, earning, transferring, and getting benefit from new knowledge that leads to innovation improvement (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995). Löfsten (2014) discovered the relationship between organizational learning and innovation, when he was comparing cars producers who used innovation groups to reduce costs (Löfsten, 2014). Also, Yang (2007) understood the effect of organizational learning on innovation in three manufacturing companies that they were studied about (Yang, 2007). Analyzing different studies, have shown stable effects of organizational innovations on business performance by paying attention to productivity, organizations directing with creativity, quality, originality and flexibility. One of the reasons that learning is considered a vital and necessary task for organizations success is that learning simplify improvement and development of new products and processes. In literature, the relationship between innovation performance and learning is not indicated expressly, but there are some investigations that knows learning as prerequisite for development. For example, Damanpour and Schneider (2008) have done a research with the name of “Providing a model for investigating the amount of the effects of organizational learning ability on innovation”, and the result illustrated that organizational learning has beneficial impact on innovation and increases innovation. Chang et al. (2012), in the research with the name of “The mediating role of knowledge: organizational innovation and learning abilities” have investigated and analyzed the relationship between organizational learning and innovation. The results indicated that organizational learning abilities are linked with organizational innovation positively and meaningfully. In other words, organizational learning ability is one of the main and vital factors, and also is counted as a facilitator for growth and innovation for organizations. Consequently, development of learning culture among organization members causes production, saving knowledge system and new and creative ideas in organization that lead to organizational innovation. Zack et al. (2009) researched about the effect of organizational learning on innovation. The result achieved from their research with the name of “The effects of organizational learning on innovation performance in big industries” was that organizational learning has positive and direct effects on innovation performance in the organization. In fact, organizational learning grows organizational performance by developing new knowledge abilities. Von Krogh et al. (2012) are in the belief that marketoriented leanings and also internal learning (organizational learning) are the main factors that influence organizational innovation. In addition, they believe that the resulting innovation from organizational learning impacts and increases organizational performance. Many researches have proven that cultures, which amplify organizational learning, bring about improvement in learning in individuals, groups and organizations. As a consequence, they improve organization performance (Lakshman, 2009). From organizational learning point of view, coherent output from the capacity created by knowledge causes innovation performance and it can strengthen it. Therefore, innovation is usually the result of knowledge created by R&D sectors and other sectors. Most of the authors know organizational learning as one of the factors that influence innovation and they believe that only those organizations that establish organizational leaning in the organization can achieve innovation. This is the topic that is being investigated in this research.

    3.3.Innovation and Knowledge Management Activities

    Knowledge management is an aggregation of activities, introductions, and strategies that companies use to create, save, transfer and use knowledge to improve their organizational performance (Zack and Singh, 2009). Descriptive introductions are looking for the creation of new knowledge, while extractive processes tend to amplify existing knowledge masses by transferring, sharing and using such resources (Grant, 2002).

    Creation of knowledge is in line with new knowledge development, or replacing the current content of knowledge in a set well-defined and tacit existing knowledge (Alavi and Leidner, 2001). Activities for creating knowledge are in line with developing knowledge by research and development (Darroch and McNaughton, 2002). However, simultaneous with the creation of knowledge and learning it in organization, it is possible that they forget to follow and record the knowledge that they have learnt (Alavi and Leidner, 2001). Consequently, saving activities of knowledge management (including, organizing, categorizing, and recovery of organizational knowledge) allow organization to keep organizational memory. This memory includes the knowledge that are saved in different types of documents letter, keeping information in electronic data bank, mystified human knowledge in professional systems, well-founded organizational processes (Alavi and Tiwana, 2003). In addition, transferring knowledge activities allow organization members to share, distribute and repeat information, and dissociate this information to reach the place that they need to be effective on existing knowledge of the company. For this reason, companies must create communication systems that are informal, formal, personal, or interpersonal (Alavi and Leidner, 2001). Finally, using knowledge means integration of knowledge from different sources, and developing the ability of organizations by mechanisms based on processes, rules and decisions in special situations (Grant, 2002). Practical processes of knowledge management must focus on integrating and using existing knowledge in organization and solving problems more easily for company (Zack et al., 2009).

    In contexts, effective knowledge management is explained as a way for improving innovation capacity of company. As an example, knowledge management innovation relationship is analyzed by researches accumulative reviews (Darroch and McNaughton, 2002). They come to this result that creation processes of knowledge management generally have common innovation performance dependents. In this field, many scientists and researchers have found positive relationship in research and development struggles to create new ideas and innovations (Zahra and Bogner, 2000). Other evidences of researches have also shown the positive connection between learning market knowledge or employees and innovation knowledge (Lin, 2011). Based on these results, knowledge management processes that leads to the creation of new knowledge and organizational learning are the main condition to reach innovation advantages (Zack et al., 2009). These processes are in deal with learning through variable processes, planned experiments and execution from the beginning (Baum et al., 2000). Knowledge management based on experiential processes of research and development are necessary for innovation performance improvement.

    3.4.Leadership, Knowledge Management and Innovation

    Dessler (2001) defines leadership as a way to encourage others to hard work to complete important tasks. Hence, leadership is in line with the definition of approach of clear management with employees and encouraging them to follow and reach company goals. They also claim that leadership has various components that consisted of leadership style, motive and connection. Leadership in knowledge organizations becomes dependent, when knowledge employees find their leader with commitment and cooperation who do their protection and learning role (De Tienne et al., 2004). Moreover, knowledge leaders must honor and prize their colleague struggles, and not show encouraging negative behavior toward transferring, sharing and using knowledge (Lakshman, 2009).

    Organizational leadership in companies with accumulative knowledge must observe everything from knowledge view to get benefit from extraction and exploitation of knowledge. In other words, company leadership must lead employees to learn and use knowledge to reach company knowledge goals. Knowledge-oriented leadership plays an essential knowledge management role in the company, and it feels and uses innovation opportunities (Teece, 2009). Therefore, knowledge-oriented leaders must provide knowledge management paths and its arrangement for extraction and exploitation of knowledge. Furthermore, they should encourage the best knowledge management process in the company, and use leadership style of knowledge management, motive, connection and determining employees.

    For enforcing innovation in the company, knowledge leaders must avoid different behaviors and this depends on existing situation in the company. Companies, which are strongly innovative, must combine the arrangement of extraction and exploitation to reach organizational ambivalent, and they should be able to guide employees along with their organizational goals (Ribiere and Sitar, 2003). In this field, Williams and Sullivan (2011) has shown pessimism in traditional, hero and transformative leadership abilities in learning (Ho, 2009) and they emphasize on leaders roles as developers and simplifiers of knowledge management who arrange knowledge processes and grow execution by prizing system. Rowe (2001) claims that for well-defined and tacit management by communication and using knowledge in innovative field, company needs the combination of visual and managerial leadership styles.

    Generally, this combination of knowledge leadership behaviors must move knowledge management arrangements from creation, transferring, keeping and using knowledge in the company. In addition, knowledgeoriented leadership includes clear relationship between knowledge employees and company goals with motivate components (Ribiere and Sitar, 2003). Leaders in the first place must act as consultants as the company employees be able to recognize knowledge management arrangements, so the granted relationship is created. Furthermore, it is necessary for clearing employees’ role in company expectations and removing obstacles. Without managers who emphasize on management arrangements, employees assume that knowledge management has low importance (De Tienne et al., 2004).

    Incentive is an important component for knowledgeoriented leadership (Chang et al., 2012). Various researches have shown that well-defined and tacit incentives have positive relationship with knowledge development and success. One of the important leaders’ responsibilities is recognizing various motivate factors that influence different individuals. Consequently, leaders should use range of approaches based on organizational employees priorities (Dessler, 2001). Knowledge-oriented leadership should pay attention to the nature of knowledge management arrangements to evaluate results, and based on the nature of knowledge management encourage relative knowledge employees. For instance, transferring knowledge or sharing that need group incentives, while explaining and storing knowledge is more effective when employees are in touch with tangible individual incentives (De Tienne et al., 2004).

    Therefore, this research based on literature review assumes that organizational learning has beneficial and direct impact on innovation performance, and also assumes that organizational learning factor can predict innovation performance, and it is able to increase innovation performance.Figure 1

    4.CONCEPTUAL MODEL AND HYPOTHESIS

    • 1. knowledge-oriented leadership has effect on creating knowledge in head quarter’s domain of energy consultant engineering of Khorasan.

    • 2. Knowledge-oriented leadership has effect on developing knowledge in head quarter’s domain of energy consultant engineering of Khorasan.

    • 3. Knowledge-oriented leadership has effect on distributing knowledge in head quarter’s domain of energy consultant engineering of Khorasan.

    • 4. Knowledge-oriented leadership has effect on using knowledge in head quarter’s domain of energy consultant engineering of Khorasan.

    • 5. Knowledge-oriented leadership has effect on innovative performance knowledge in head quarter’s domain of energy consultant engineering of Khorasan.

    • 6. Knowledge-oriented leadership through considering the mediating role of creating knowledge has effect on innovative performance in head quarter’s domain of energy consultant engineering of Khorasan.

    • 7. Knowledge-oriented leadership through considering the mediating role of developing knowledge has effect on innovative performance in head quarter’s domain of energy consultant engineering of Khorasan.

    • 8. Knowledge-oriented leadership through considering the mediating role of distributing knowledge has effect on innovative performance in head quarter’s domain of energy consultant engineering of Khorasan.

    • 9. Knowledge-oriented leadership through considering the mediating role of using knowledge has effect on innovative performance in head quarter’s domain of energy consultant engineering of Khorasan.

    5.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    The methodology of this research is descriptive, because based on the definition, descriptive research includes the methodologies that their purpose is describing situations and phenomenon under study; Executing descriptive research can be only for knowing existing situation or helping decision-making process (Sarmad, 2013). Type of this research based on its purpose is considered as applicable, since this research studies the impacts of knowledge-oriented leadership on innovative performance through considering the mediating role of knowledge management practices, and it tries to provide and use some solutions for future decision- making and planning by its results. It should be noticed that the applicable research results is heavily depended on time and place (Delavar, 2013). The study population consisted of all employees in head quarter’s domain of energy consultant engineering of Khorasan that includes 200 people. According to Morgan table, the sample size is 130 people that the questioners were randomly distributed among them. Random sampling by categorizing is a way that the population under study is categorized into different groups, and from each category some samples are chosen randomly and independently from other categories. In this methodology, it is tried to categorize the population in a way that the samples of each group is more homogenous in compare to other groups. There are some advantages for this sampling methodology (Arghami and Bozorgnia, 2002). In this research the independent latent variable is knowledge-oriented leadership. The dependent latent variable is innovator performance, and mediating latent variables are knowledge management practices. In research execution, after providing basic explanation about measuring tools and the purpose of doing examination, the way of answering the exam is fully explained for participants. About ethical remarks after getting consent from participants and giving necessary information to them, they were assured that the information received is used only in this research, and it is protected from any abuse. To measure research variables questionnaire, which were made by the researcher, were used. This questionnaire includes the questions, which were able to measure knowledge fundamental abilities, knowledge process abilities, sharing knowledge and organization efficiency. The scale of answering that is 5-point Likret scale. For validity one of the copies was given to the university lecturers. After that some of the questions that were unclear, equivocal or were not relevant the topic territory places, and study population were replaced with some questions that were more clear and explained. Cronbach’s alpha was used to determine reliability. The results have shown that the questionnaire has desirable reliability (Table 1).

    6.FINDINGS

    6.1.The Results of Descriptive Statistics

    According to the research results, out of 130 of people were studied, 110 were males, and the highest amplitude is in the male group. The most amount of amplitude distribution based on the level education is in bachelor, which is 46.2%. The proportion of Diploma is 6.2% and masters and PHD is 43.1. The most amount of amplitude distribution according to age group is in the group of 20 to 30 years old which has the percentage of 41.5. The percentages of individuals aged between 30 to 40 and 40 to 50 are 39.2 and 12.3 respectively. The least proportion (6.9) is allocated to the middle aged people who are more than 50 years old.

    6.2.The Results of Perceptual Statistics

    Table 2 shows the average and standard deviation of the variables of research.

    In order to investigate the model fits, the Khi2 (X2/df), Comparative Fit (CFI), Goodness of Fit (GFI), Adjusted Goodness of Fit (AGFI), Normed Fit (NFI), Non-Normed Fit (NNFI), Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) indexes were used. From the Table 3 it can be observed that all the fit coefficients are in the acceptable limit. The Khi 2 is 2.55 and other indexes (NNFI, NFI, CFI, GFI, AGFI) are all more than 0.9, and RMSEA is less than 0.1. These results prove that the validity of the measuring model is reliable.Figure 2Figure 3Table 4

    7.CONCLUSION

    After providing the general diagram of respondent, and describing each research variables, hypotheses were investigated by fundamental equations that its explanation has given in chapter 4. The results of hypotheses investigation have shown that the purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between knowledge oriented leadership and innovative performance through considering the mediating role of knowledge management abilities. In this field, the results have proven that there is a meaningful relationship between knowledge-oriented leadership and innovative performance by considering the mediating role of knowledge management abilities. In the following parts, hypotheses of the impacts of knowledgeoriented leadership on distributing knowledge, using knowledge, creating knowledge, and developing knowledge were proved that this hypothesis is in line with Donate and Sánchez de Pablo (2015) research. They studied “The role of knowledge oriented leadership in innovation and knowledge management methodologies” in a research. The results have indicated that although knowledge management methodologies are important for innovation targets, they encourage the existence of this kind of developing leadership, and using knowledge management (for example creation) and exploiting (for example, storing transferring and usage). The main concept is that one result is that using and developing knowledge management methodologies capable the company to improve performance in its product innovation. In the field of approving the relationship between knowledge oriented leadership and innovative performance this hypothesis also corresponds to Donate and Sánchez de Pablo (2015). Alavi and Tiwana (2003) have done the research with the name of “Studying the effects of knowledge management process abilities on innovation performance by the effect of mediating innovation process in organizations with advanced technology.” The results have admitted two hypotheses about the significant impact of knowledge management process abilities on innovation performance, but it didn’t admit the hypothesis about the significant effect of innovation process on innovation performance, and also indirect effect of knowledge management process abilities on innovation performance. Vazifedust et al. (2014) have done a research with the name of “ The effects of strategic knowledge management on the innovation and performance of Brokerage firms of Tehran stock exchange.” The results of this research have proven that knowledge management strategies can influence the performance of Brokerage firms of Tehran stock exchange directly or indirectly (by increasing innovation ability). Hence, personal knowledge management does not have such an effect on the innovation and performance of Brokerage firms. By considering the positive effect of knowledge management on the innovation and performance of Brokerage firms the result of this research can help managers and scientists in designing the program of knowledge management strategic in order to achieve higher level of innovation, efficiency, proficiency and profitability. Moradi et al. (2014) have done a project with the name of “Studying the role of absorption capacity of knowledge on innovative performance of organizations.” The result of analyzing and correlation of Regression has protected the relationship between the individual and organizational absorption capacity, and also protected the relationship between these two factors with innovative performance. Also, by considering the results of analyzing hierarchical regression, the mediating role of organizational absorption capacity in relation with individual absorption capacity variable and innovative performance has admitted. Safarzadeh et al. (2012) have done a research with the name of “Impacts of knowledge management strategies on innovation and organizational performance.” The results have illustrated that to measuring the effect of knowledge codification and knowledge personalizing on innovation and performance, the relationship between the variables corresponds to standardized measures of final path model has shown that t were studied directly. The measure, which has more that 99% certainty of innovation and organizational performance variable, has direct relation with codification. Also, the “t” of innovation and organizational performance has direct relationship with 99% certainty. In addition, quantities correspond to the standard quantities have shown that innovation with 99% certainty has direct relationship with organizational performance. Moreover, personalizing knowledge and knowledge codification have beneficial impacts on innovation and organizational performance, and these variables have positive effects on organizational performance by innovation, and there is a positive and considerable relationship between innovation and organizational performance. Gloet and Terziovski (2004) have done a research with the name of “The relationship between innovation and knowledge management methodologies”. The result of this research was that knowledge management leads to innovation performance, when an approach is carrying out by “Soft human resource management practices” and “Hard information technology methodology” simultaneously. Löfsten (2014) has done a research with the name of “The impacts of new human resource management activities on innovation performance of companies”. They studied nine variables of human resource management of the company. The results have illustrated that the innovation performance of four production sectors and one telecommunication sector are in contact with the majority of nine variables of human resource management. In line with the admitting the connection between knowledge-oriented leadership and innovative performance through considering the mediating role of knowledge management abilities and its dimensions (transferring knowledge management, knowledge management usage, knowledge management creation) also this hypothesis corresponds with the research, which has been done by Donate and Sánchez de Pablo (2015).

    Figure

    IEMS-16-495_F1.gif

    The conceptual framework of study derived from Donate and Sánchez de Pablo (2015).

    IEMS-16-495_F2.gif

    Test the conceptual model in meaningful coefficient.

    IEMS-16-495_F3.gif

    Test the conceptual model on the factor loadings.

    Table

    The reliability coefficient of each measuring tools of the research (questionnaire)

    Descriptive statistics of each variables of the research

    Model fit indexes of final model

    Summery of the research results

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