Journal Search Engine
Search Advanced Search Adode Reader(link)
Download PDF Export Citaion korean bibliography PMC previewer
ISSN : 1598-7248 (Print)
ISSN : 2234-6473 (Online)
Industrial Engineering & Management Systems Vol.17 No.4 pp.757-768
DOI : https://doi.org/10.7232/iems.2018.17.4.757

Providing a Model of Effective Factors to Successful Acceptance of Social CRM in Banks of Iran

Mojtaba Mostafapour, Seyed Abdolah Heydariyeh*
Department of Management and Economy Azad University of Semnan, Semnan, Iran
* Corresponding Author, E-mail: sheydarieh@yahoo.com
September 2, 2017 January 1, 2018 January 24, 2018

ABSTRACT


Social Customer Relationship Management (SCRM) in social media is considered as a new generation of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in organizations, in such a way that organizations are trying to make infrastructure to use this strategy as a new means of interaction with customers. In this study, several conceptual models proposed by researchers were examined in the field of technology acceptance and with regards to theories like TAM and TRA in this field, a localized model in SCRM technology acceptance in banks of Iran was provided. In this regard, two exogenous factors of WEB2.0 and endogenous factors were examined as the factors influencing adoption of this technology in 30 Iranian banks using filed studies and questionnaires. The questionnaires were filled in marketing and information technology departments of the banks by 128 chief administrates of these departments. In order to test the model, we used of structural equation model by using SMART PLS and SPSS software. Confirming the model in the form of a measurement and structural model with GOF =. 421 fitted at the desire level. The results of the study provided a model suitable for SCRM technology acceptance in banking industry in Iran.



초록


    1. INTRODUCTION

    Today, customers’ needs, their expectations and the people whom they trust have changed dramatically. Hence, in order to draw the customers’ attention in a business and to have their support, it is necessary to define a new meaning of development and relationship maintenance in response to the changed needs of customers (Greenberg, 2010).Therefore, managers are condemned to use the emerging technologies. Technologies such as social media programs with current systems and procedures, which are considered as being capable of developing stronger relationships with the customers (Trainor et al., 2013).

    A significant number of organizations believe that the potential of social media in reconstruction of customer relationships and their movement towards the future despite the concerns about the return on investment (ROI), exposure to negative brand or lack of new strategy, is promising (Baird and Parasnis, 2011)Therefore, there is a need to accept changes with a new strategy called Social CRM (Baird and Parasnis, 2011), a way to manage the conversation, not the customer (Baird and Parasnis, 2011).

    As the organizations dealing with the customers, banks have taken steps towards using this technology, too. In the meantime, banking industry in Iran face some big challenges in terms of customer relationship. Many of these banks have moved towards reconstruction of procedures and traditional means of business.

    Business models in banks are challenged by their direct and indirect leaders. All of these subjects have resulted in loosing trust and decreasing fidelity of customers.

    Today, new digital customers find a variety of options for communicating with the banks. Communication ways such as phones, internet, smartphone apps, and so on. It can definitely be said that todays’ customers are intelligent and always ask for novel methods of communication.

    After the advancement of communication technology, especially in the field of social media, organizations use this technological platform to transfer relationship control to the customer. An infrastructure which may provide a ground for revision in traditional CRM approach. In this regard, web 2.0 technologies can be considered as the most useful tool in creation of a two-way communication between the customer and the organization (Askooland Nakata, 2010). The purpose of this paper is to develop a model to study Customer Relationship Management technology acceptance in social media in banks of Iran which has been prepared based on Technology Acceptance Model called TAM (Davis et al., 1989). Since TAM is limited to study the creation of user attitudes and eventually its impact on the acceptance of technology, in this paper we tried to investigate two factors including Web 2.0 exogenous features factors and inter-organizational factors, and to study the effect of the mentioned factors on SCRM technology acceptance.

    And finally, we provide a suitable model in adoption of this system in banks of Iran, which with regards to the lack of such study in Iran, it is considered the innovative aspect of this study. In examining of this model, it was revealed that technology adoption procedure in Iran is similar to other countries in many ways, and the results are consistent with the results of other studies, except for two hypothesis.

    1.1. Problem Statement

    By entering social networks, customers cannot play a non-active role in their relationships with the company. Web2.0 technology has been designed to change the behavior of banking service users in a way that they request client-oriented banking and social networking experience, in which high levels of trust and transparency and engagement are established. Therefore, social media is the most important new process for banks and provides new opportunities to be used to improve the effectiveness of marketing campaigns, customer contact management, demand creation, customer service delivery and customer support.

    Social media is definitely has space for financial institutions. Big players in the banking sector have already made their presence felt on social platforms like Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. Depending on an in-depth glance at the interactions, posts and assertions the banking institutions are creating these types of programs, social networking can possibly be identified as one more channel why which details can be propagated in a two way manner. There are several top banking institutions which have been basically using the channels in the best possible way, however, there exists space for profiting social media marketing in a much more sustainable manner (Ujwala, 2015).

    The social-media platforms have also provided banks with a new channel of communication and a CRM tool that is being effectively used by only a few banks. While some industries, such as the lifestyle industry, telecommunications or the automotive industry have realised the importance of social media, most banks are still struggling to get their social-media strategy right. Banks that have an effective social-media strategy have a huge advantage in being able to develop a closer relationship with their customers (Höhler, 2016).

    1.2. The Importance of Using SCRM in Banks

    With regards to extensive use of social media, for many people SCRM is still in its incomplete stages of implementation and worries about Return of Interest. To take full advantage of social media power for customer relationship, organizations need to move beyond predefined organizational framework to be able to complete their programs and finally achieve an SCRM effective strategy (Baird and Parasnis, 2011).

    Social media would perform two important functions for the banking industry, namely: provide protection against potential brand equity loss and increase financial gains with increased sales and reduced service costs. In addition, banks can hugely leverage their marketing and support activities with social media if they provide a sophisticated customer service through dedicated ‘Twitter accounts,’ which are an inexpensive way of providing support, encouraging the staff (apart from the appointed customer service personnel) to take part in responding to the posts online and providing necessary information on its products (Höhler, 2016).

    2. BACKGROUND

    2.1. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

    The theory of technology acceptance was introduced for the first time in 1989 by Davis. Adopting the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975), he developed TAM model.

    The theory of reasoned action (action incentive) which is proposed by Fishbon and Ajzen in the book “Belief, Attitude, intention and behavior: an introduction to theory and research,” is based on the assumption that people act rationally. They gather all the information available about the purpose and regularly evaluate them. They take into consideration the effect and the result of actions as well. Then they decide on the basis of their arguments whether to do the action or not. In reasoned action model, the attitude and mental norms of an individual are determining factors for behavioral intention, and behavior of using the technology is only affected by the behavioral intention of that technology. In fact, TAM model is the adjusted and modified theory of reasoned action that Davis has raised in his doctoral thesis. The main objective of the technology acceptance model is to provide a basis for investigating the effect of external factors on internal beliefs, attitude and use intention (Figure 1)

    The theory of technology acceptance in 1989 by Davis can be considered as a basis for various theories in the field, in which he recognized usefulness and perceived simplicity as two essential factors in technology acceptance. “Usefulness and perceived ease of use as well as user acceptance of information technology” is the name of an article by Davis in 1989. In this article, he examines the reasons of acceptance or rejection of technology by people. In his study, Davis examined factors such as: working faster, implementation, effectiveness, simplicity, usefulness, ease of learning, work controllability, flexibility, understandability, ease of acquiring skill, and ease of use. Finally, he recognized perceived usefulness and ease of use of a technology as key factors in adopting a technology. The study was the basis of suggesting TAM model by Davis. In 1989, Fred D. Davis et al. in a study explored computer technology acceptance by user and compared two theoretical models of TRA (Theory of reasoned action) (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975) and TAM (Theory of technology acceptance), which was conducted among 107 users. It investigated the reasons for acceptance or rejection of technology by users. Final conclusions are briefly as follows:

    Use of computer technology is reasonably resulted from users’ purposes and behavioral intentions.

    To perceive usefulness of technology is one of the most important factors in individual’s behavioral intention in using computer technology.

    To perceive simplicity of using technology is the second important feature in behavioral intention.

    TAM in banking

    Technology adoption model is widely used in banking industry, a background summary of which is shown in Table 1:

    2.1. Social Media & Web2.0

    The concept of media is not unknown to the general public, but being used in combination with the word ‘social’ in the age of communication, it turns into a newtechnology.

    Albors (2008), argues that social media makes cus-tomers more sophisticated. It helps them develop searching, evaluating, selecting and buying tactics. The concept ofsocialmediacandefine organizationasasystemincluding elements such as individuals,groups and otherorganizationswhichareinter-connectedbya fieldof relations (Ajay et al., 2001). In terms of marketing researches, there is an opportunity to build a brand through users whose behavior and comments are valuable on the website. A method in market research for user communities has been pro-vided for goods or services. In addition, information can be classified according to postal code and be used in conjunction with services(KazımKirtiş and Karahan, 2011). According to McKinsey, companies’ use of social media shows that the more companies are dependent on the network, due to its increasing effect, the more successful they will be in the long run. This is because while the companies are connected to the network, as they learn more, they act better (Shearman, 2011). KazımKirtiş and Karahan (2011) describe social media as an effective strategy to exit recession condition and believe that it is the best marketing method during economic turmoil because of its effects on cost reduction.Consequently, companies preferred to use social media as the best way to reach their customers after the global recession due to the recent economic crisis.Researches on this topic also shows that both small and large companies have devotedmore resources to social media.

    According to Diagram (1), Stelzner (2016) shows ten advantages that convince organizations to use social media.

    89% and 75%of marketers use the social media to increase exposure, and to increase traffic, respectively. At the meantime, developing loyal fans with 68%, makes the third rank.

    “As of October 2010 according to IBM research, a robust 74 percent of companies report using social media to communicate with customers. Sixty-five percent use it to respond to customer questions, and 60 percent are promoting events with social media .These numbers are powerfulindicators of the vigor with which businesses are embracing social media as a primary customer communication channel”(Baird andParasnis, 2011).

    With the advancement of internet andnew comput-er technologies,the concept of web, podcasts, wikis and-soonturnedinto common concepts in communication sciences. Nowadays, with software and platform updates in cyberspace, the concept of web is no more a mere one-sided platform for providing information and exchanging concepts.According to Tim O’Reilly and Musser (2006), the next step in the evolution of internet-visiting of which can share an extensivesetofonlineapplicationsandcommonfeatures- actsasaplatformtoharness the collective intelligence and to end the software release cycle as well as light pro-gramming models and explains the concept of Web 2.0. Web 2.0 can be called as a platform of economic and social activities as well as technological trends and generally the basis for the next generation of Internet(O’Reilly and Musser, 2006). This technology can create opportunities for researchers to build and share knowledge(Echenget al., 2013).

    2.2. Social CRM

    The term Social CRM or simply SCRM, offers dif-ferent interpretations and ultimately the same concept to the researchers. Social CRM is a new field of research which is focused on attractive social media technologies development since 2006 (Harriganet al., 2015). Green-berg (2010) in defining SCRM refers to CRM2.0, since it is developed based on WEB2.0. He also believes that SCRM is a Business philosophy and Strategy which is supported by technology platforms, business rules, processes and social features. It was designed to interact with customers in a bilateral dialogue and with the purpose of providing mutual interests. Social media space can be considered as a place for network communication and content sharing (Paniagua and Sapena, 2014). Social CRM should be considered as an emerging technology in communication era rather than a new strategy. As Askool and Nakata (2011) refer to SCRM as a new CRM model which is the result of development in IT and internet services.

    The basic principle to success in social CRM is very different from its ancestor, i.e. traditional CRM. Tradi-tional CRM is based on an effective internal operational approach to manage relationships with customers, while CRM 2.0 depends on company’s ability to meet customers personalized programs, and at the same time involves with its own business plan objectives.

    2.3. Social CRM in Banking

    Askool and Nakata (2010) research in a third world country of Saudi Arabia, introduces web 2 features as the endogenous factors in the proposed model based on TAM with three introduced characteristics of easy participation, easy collaboration, and easy networking (relationship creation),which helped the researcher in studying acceptance behavior in organization, with influence on factors such as familiarity, attention, information sharing, and self-perceived trust. In this model, the basis to study factors affecting technology acceptance is TAM, which with the addition of above mentioned exogenous variable, had a glance at its developed derivation, i.e. TAM2.

    The exogenous WEB2.0 variable can be considered as the turning point and undeniable fact in proposed development models of technology adoption, in a way that researches tried to find the relationship between web users’ behaviours and technology adoption. In ‘Suggestions’ part of this paper for future studies, we will see that the role of security perception in technology adoption is suggested, which is among items that is studied in this study.

    The Thai researcher,Wongsansukcharoen (2013), proposedamodel with three variables including Social CRM, Differentiation Strategy, and Banking Performance Affections using structural equation modeling. In addition, through field studies among managers and employees of commercial banks in Thailand, he proved the following three assumptions:

    • - SCRM has a positive impact on the effective im-plementation of bank performance.

    • - Differentiation strategy has a positive impact on the implementation of effective performance of banks.

    In addition, Alinejhad Mehrpouya and Nabavbi (2016), in an article titled “SCRM, a solution to the virtual banking,” explored the advantages of social networking under Web 2.0 in making communication with customers in new banking, and considered implementation of a comprehensive approach of social networks in banking industry. In this Study it is noted that despite the advantages such as:

    • 1. Access to more customer’s information.

    • 2. New advertising opportunities

    • 3. The possibility of outsourcing applications and features on social networks

    • 4. More users’ participation in the creation of database due to its user-friendly environment.

    Challenges such restrictive laws in developing countries, uncertainty and feeling of insecurity as well as data extraction problems are among barriers in using SCRM strategy in some countries.

    Ujwala(2015), Studied the use of SCRM technology in banking industry. He mentioned some advantages using this system in banks, as the following:

    • 1. Creates a new perspective on providing services to specific customers by collecting information from SCRM.

    • 2. Creates satisfaction in customers with making a sense of participation.

    • 3. Helps facilitate the integration of social networks in CRM.

    • 4. Promotes P2P system by creating interest in clientsdueto sharing their experiences and interests.

    • 5. Due to the fact that in 2012, more than 60 percent of customers of financial institutions were lost due to long time to respond by customer service, it seems that SCRM is a good and cheap alternative to rebuild the powerful interaction of customers.

    In a study conducted on thirty banks in Germany and two important European banks regarding using social media in CRM, the following results were achieved:

    “Social-media usage is a trend that every bank will have to adapt to, especially since‘Generation Y’ and the generation of digital natives is increasingly becoming an important market segment. Bank customers will continue to demand fast answers to their banking questions and ultimately banks will have to switch to a full duplex mode of communication where they talk and listen to their customers simultaneously. While social media cannot replace a ‘classic CRM,’ it can provide a platform for individualised customer service and a way to influence the customers’ decisions. The adoption of social media will have some non-financial impacts on banks, whereby banks will get a chance to add to their brand and be seen as an innovative company. By using social media, banks will be able to add to their customer centricity drive and provide fast and easy resolution of customers’ problems. Banks can also strengthen their corporate identity and increase their brand value, which can result in an increase in the level of trust customers have in banks.

    The financial impact that banks can expect from the use of social media can include the reduction of retention and acquisition cost of customers, increase in deposit generation, Increase in marketing return on investment, reduction in churn rate and thereby increased contribution margin per customer. Facebook will be one of the key platforms in the near future and has the potential to act as the hub for an organization’s social-media initiatives. Facebook is already being used by some banks to set up ‘virtual branches.There are huge opportunities for all German retail banks, as they are far from using social-media channels effectively. Especially German Volksbanken, Raiffeisenbanken and Sparkassen, as they can be seen as local banks and are deeply rooted in the regional economic life, have enormous potential. These banks have excellent knowledge about the local market and personal contact with the people in the region, and they support local cultural and social activities. For these banks, the communities already exist, and they need to take these communities to their social-media assets. The fact that social media will greatly influence our everyday life as we know it is indisputable, and efforts need to be made in the short run in order to secure a competitive advantage (Höhler, 2016).

    3. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL

    3.1. Factors Influencing Social CRM ADOPTION (Hasaniet al., 2017; Ajay et al., 2001)

    Technology Acceptance Model has been used by many researchers, so that it is proposed as one of the most basic models of technology acceptance in various researches. Perhaps the main feature of this model is the flexibility to study exogenous and different mediator variables, that depending on the type of research, the impact of these factors as independent variable on other variables can be investigated. Before the adoption of the proposed SCRM technology model in Iran, we examine the suggested exogenous variables in this model as the following:

    3.1.1. Web 2.0 Features

    Web 2.0 can be considered as an important tool in development of social relations (Miller and Berg, 1984). Furthermore, it is a set of open source, interactive and user controlled applications which is gaining experience, knowledge and market power from users as participants in the business and social processes (Constantinides, 2014). Askool and Nakata (2010) research in a third world country of Saudi Arabia, introduces web 2 features as the endogenous factors in the proposed model based on TAM with three introduced characteristics of easy participation, easy collaboration, and easy networking (relationship creation),which helped the researcher in studying acceptance behavior in organization, with influence on factors such as familiarity, attention, information sharing, and self-perceived trust. In this model, the basis to study factors affecting technology acceptance is TAM, which with the addition of above mentioned exogenous variable, had a glance at its developed derivation, i.e. TAM2.

    Sigala (2007) notes that Web 2.0 services help people and organizations in creating customer value and building customer relations through social networking and collaboration. Based on Web 2.0 features (ease of participation, accessibility, and cooperation), it is expected that it has positive impact on the use and acceptance of SCRM (Askool and Nakata, 2010).

    3.1.2. Organizational Factors

    Technology acceptance in an organization includes various stages that a number of those-depending on some variables- are related to organizational factors. Of the factors affecting the acceptance of a technology in an organization, the followings can be mentioned:

    Users’ community (user’s job history, user’s training and resistance to change) (Cooper and Zmud, 1990).

    Organization (focus, expertise and formality) (Cooper and Zmud, 1990).

    To perceive financial cost (Charalambos et al., 1995).

    To perceive technical competence (Kuan and Chau, 2001).

    Enterprise features (Cooper and Zmud, 1990).

    Internet admission competition (Cooper and Zmud, 1990).

    Internal resources, IT implementation, IT availability, IT expertise, organizational culture (Igbaria et al., 1998).

    Internal factors include: (domestic technology, senior management support, experience and training) (Igbaria et al., 1998).

    Senior management support, IT expertise, size of the organization (Premkumar and Roberts, 1999).

    Level of IT use in organization, level of IT use among amateurs and professionals in organization (Mehrtens et al., 2001).

    Low cost structure, balance close to zero, as well as high quality services to customers

    It has been studied that technology resources and managerial capabilities of organization are of major internal factors in explaining adoption of internet technology.

    Al-Hudhaif (2011) recognizes the following three items as effective factors in successful implementation of CRM and maintaining customers in Saudi Arabia banking:

    • 1. Senior management support.

    • 2. Developing a clear strategy for customer relationship management.

    • 3. Choosing the correct software for customer relationship management in the organization.

    According to the study, the first two factors are more effective than the third one.

    Further, Eid(2007), in an article entitled “Towards Successful implementation of CRM in Banks,” by ex-amining seven underlying factors in success of customer relationship management, provides a general model for the success of CRM in bank. Factors to be considered are as follows.

    • 1. Strategic factors 2. Tactical factors 3. Operational factors 4. Quality of relationships 5.Trading Quality 6.Reducing the costs 7.Customer retention.

    3.1.3. Today, Organizations, Companies and Banks in Particular, are Facing Internet Security Is-sues Which become more Highlighted When They are Connected to Cyberspace

    Due to the fear of stealing services and customers’ data as well as fraudulent use of financial information, organizations need to have a sophisticated security me-chanism (Aldridgeet al., 1997). Security refers to a tech-nical assurance ensuring that legal requirements and activities are successfully done while privacy is respected (Flavin andGuinalíu, 2006). Security is a set of methods, mechanisms and computer programs that gives credit to information source, and respects privacy to overcome the information or network resources problems (Tsiaki-sandSthephanides, 2005).

    Flavin and Guinalu (2006), in an article under the title of “user confidence, perceived security and privacy policy,” studied the impact of privacy, perceived security, and level of consumer confidence in Internet. The results showed that loyalty of a user to a site is affected by trust he has in the website. Also, customer confidence in a website is positively affected by customer’s perceived security of the website.

    4. CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR SOCIAL CRM ADOPTION

    By reviewing researches and literature in different periods, it is clear that technology acceptance theory (TAM), in its basic or extended versions, has the most application in designing the models of technology acceptance theory in a way that it can be considered as the principles’ basis of technology acceptance. In addition, according to the studies, the factors affecting organizational changes are always effective in acceptance of a technology in an organization. According to theories and principles of reasoned action and technology acceptance, inter-organizational factors as important factors in acceptance, use of a technology along with undeniable role of Web 2.0 as well as Iran’s social, political and cultural situation, the following model (Figure 2) is suggested to study technology acceptance behaviour in organizations of Iran.

    5. HYPOTHESIS

    Table 2 shows the research hypothesis:

    6. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    This research is an applied-fundamental in terms of purpose, since it seeks to apply the results in SCRM establishment and technology acceptance in banks. Regarding the nature, it is a cause-effect study, and in respect of data collection, it is a descriptive-survey research. Questionnaire was used as the data collection tool. The data collection method used in this research is divided into two categories:

    Theinformation related to the theoretical subjects for research theoretical framework was obtained from various books, publications and domestic and foreign publications, gathered from authentic internet libraries and databases.

    The information necessary for calculations, reviewing and examining the research hypotheses were collected through questionnaire submitted to banks.

    The population consisted of all marketing and IT sectors of state and private banks with 30 units. Totally, 128 samples (only senior managers of information technology and marketing departments) were used for evaluation.

    Considering the small sample size, the whole popu-lation was selected as a statistical sample. In fact, this research was a field study and sampling was done through census. According to the results of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, since the questionnaire’s data are not normal and the number of data is not enough for LISREL and AMOS, the analysis was performed using SPSS and Smart PLS. To calculate descriptive and distributional statistics, SPSS, and to analyze inferentially, Smart PLS were used.

    Not being normal in the first place, and small num-ber of data were the most important reasons for using this software. The reliability was tested using Factor loading coefficients, Cronbach’s alpha and composite reliability. The results are shown in Table 3.

    This study is aimed to provide a conceptual model for the acceptance of customer relationship management system in social media (SCRM), in banks. The territory scope of research is state and private banks of Iran, and information related to the research were collected in 2015. Therefore, the year 2015 is the time scope of the study.

    7. RESEARCH FINDINGS

    Data analysis was done with 95% confidence coefficient. In t-test, which is the most important test, the fol-lowing results in Table 4 were obtained.

    According to the results of statistical analysis, an explanation will follow:

    According to the first hypothesis: “Web features have positive impact and significant relationship on user perception of SCRM technology usefulness,” which was not far from expectation with respect to the results of the previous researches. Examining the three features of ease of access, ease of operation and ease of participation, as the three items of this variable shows that this factor has a positive impact on organizations perception of technology usefulness with significance factor of 3.873. This hypothesis was also established in Askool and Nakata (2010) research regarding the suggestion of factors influencing the acceptance of SCRM in Saudi Arabia banks.

    Confirmation of the hypothesis in a similar way in both countries of Iran and Saudi Arabia may be due to cultural proximity and similarity in banking industry of the two country.

    “Web 2.0 features have a positive and significant impact on perception of organization SCRM ease of use” is the title of the second hypothesis. As explained in the first hypothesis, confirmation of this hypothesis in Askool and Nakata (2010) studies is an approval for the obtained relationship. It is obvious that the easiness items in Web 2.0 features variable are the main factors in the impact of this variable on ease of use. That is because the facilitated web 2.0 platform increases access and use of social media space.

    The third hypothesis is “positive impact of Web 2.0 features on perceiving SCRM technology security by the organization staff.”The effect that is certainly emerged from WEB 2.0 security which was not addressed in Askool and Nakata study. However, in this paper it was referred to as a suggestion for further studies. This study showed that Web 2.0 features are both among the influential factors in SCRM technology acceptance, and have positive and significant influence on the user’s perception of security of this technology, which has a great impact on technology acceptance by organization.

    The fourth hypothesis states that inter-organizational factors with items of enabling organization in technological resources, senior managers’ support, experience as well as staff training, have a significant and positive impact on user perceptions of the usefulness of technology, which was emphasized in this study. In extensive researches by scholars such as Anna R.del (2006), Igberia (1998), Premkumar and Roberts (1999), as well as researches conducted by the IBM company (2010), items of senior managers’ support, staff training and richness of IT infrastructure were identified as the main organizational factors affecting technology acceptance. However, in a closer view, Urban Šebjan (2014), in his proposed mod-el,believed that technical orientation of organization is effective on two meddling factors including use intensi-ty and perception of technology use. These factors are effective on use of technology. However, this factor (organizational factors), has not been studied as an exogenous variable in the technology acceptance model so far. The research conducted among marketing elites and banks’ IT professionals approved the positive impact of this variable on user’s perception of technology usefulness.According to the results, senior managers’ support, technology infrastructures, and staff training obtained the highest percentage in terms of response to the items respectively. Although in the first glance the technology infrastructure seems to be the most important factor among the organizational factors affecting technology acceptance, in organization staffs’ perspectives, the attitude and support of organization managers outweigh shortage of technical tools. Therefore, it can be used for technology implementation in order to develop and succeed.

    According to the results, inter-organizational factors which was introduced as an exogenous variable in the proposed model, had no positive and significant effect on user perception of the ease of use of technology.

    This could be due to organizational conditions in Iran or very limited use of social media at enterprise level with significant impact on perceived ease of technology use. Since researches on the effects of internal organizational factors on technology acceptance has been conducted without considering mediator variables (perceived ease and perceived usefulness), the results obtained in this study regarding the use of organizational factors as exogenous variables are innovative in developing technology acceptance model and will be effective on future researches.

    The sixth hypothesis of the proposed model is “Per-ception of technology’s ease of use has a positive impact on user perception of technology usefulness,” which has been approved frequently in different researches under the topic of technology acceptance. consequently, approval of this hypothesis was not far from expectation in this study. This hypothesis was proposed and confirmed in Technology Acceptance Model by Davis.

    Similarly, the confirmation of H7, H8, H10, H11 and H12 hypotheses approves the earlier researches conducted in different countries on technology acceptance, which indicates the similarity of conditions of technology acceptance in Iran and other countries.

    “Organization perception of technology security has no positive and significance impact on the attitude of the organization.” This is the ninth hypothesis tested in this research, which has not been investigated in technology acceptance so far. The test was conducted at the completion of the investigation done by Nakata and Askooland the results showed that a high percentage of respondents acknowledged lack of technical, public and personal security in social media space in answering the questionnaire.

    Rejecting the hypothesis of significant relationship between security perception and of user’s attitude, may be due to the rejection of social media security, negative propaganda, lack of adequate understanding of this technology, little experience of professional working with social media and so on, which negatively influence user's attitude.

    Items of perceived security were designed on the basis of privacy and security of social media’s workplace, and the items of user's attitude were designed based on user or organization positive attitude. However, in a research conducted by Zahra Seyed Ghorban (2011), perceived security by the customer through technical protection and public safety, had a positive effect on technology use.

    8. CONCLUSION

    This article investigated factors related to the SCRM acceptance in banks of Iran, a strategy that could improve relations between banks and customers. A design based on updating traditional CRM.

    As findings showed, in the proposed model which is derived from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), ten hypotheses-consisting Davis model assumptions- out of twelve, were accepted. This can signify that Technology Acceptance Model is responsive regarding customer relationship management technology acceptance in social media in Iran and in banking system of Iran. This technology can be localized with regard to the discussed exogenous variables. Challenging factors regarding institutionalization of this strategy in Iran banking industry, as stated in review of assumptions, are initially inter-organizational factorseffective in perception of technology ease of use in banks of Iran. This may be due Iran's poor technological infrastructure, insufficient education as well as lack of experience in using this technology in a large scale. On the other hand, according to the recent model, the second challenge is security. Perception of technology security is among the most important factors in acceptance of an emerging technology. However, in this study, the security emanated from network features had no positive impact on the staffs’ attitudes which is due to the poor network security in Iran, increasing malwares in social media or lack of staff awareness in using social media for banking activities.

    9. RESEARCH SUGGESTIONS

    Regarding the results, some suggestions are provided here to improve the model presented in banks of Iran:

    • 1. Extensive use of web 2.0 and efficient use of its features in order to improve the quality of services offered to customers.

    • 2. Focusing on inter-organizational factors such as management, IT infrastructure, training and knowledge improvement of banks’ staffs, which wills be achieved by in-service trainings and preparation of banks IT infrastructure together with assignment of pilot technology in organizational charts.

    • 3. Increasing internal and external security of net-works used in banks whereby the attitudes of managers and clients to use SCRM would increase.

    The suggestions following the results:

    • 1. To study the effect of external factors such as government pressure and policy, competitors and social norms.

    • 2. To use the developed technology acceptance model,known as “TAM2.”

    • 3. To study the influential SCRM substitution soft-ware in acceptance of this technology.

    Figure

    IEMS-17-757_F1.gif

    TAM (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975).

    IEMS-17-757_F2.gif

    Conceptual model.

    Table

    Background of TAM used in banking industry

    Hypothesis

    Cronbach’s alpha and composite reliability

    T-test results

    REFERENCES

    1. Ahmadalinejad, M. and Nabavi, S. N. (2016), Social CRM: A solution for realization of virtual banking, International Journal of Mechatronics, Electricaland Computer Technology, 6(22), 3134-3141.
    2. Ajay, M. , Martin, K. , and Daniel, J. B. (2001), The social networks of high and low self-monitors: Implications for workplace performance, Implications for Workplace Performance, 46(1), 121-146.
    3. Al-Hudhaif, S. (2011), The critical success factors for implementation of customer relationship management in the banking sector of Saudi Arabia, Journal of Global Business Management, 7(1), 1-7.
    4. Aldridge, A. , White, M. , and Forcht, K. (1997), Security considerations of doing business via the internet:Cautions to be considered, Internet Research, 7(1), 9-15.
    5. Alsajjan, B. and Dennis, C. (2010), Internet banking acceptance model: Cross-market examination, Journalof Business Research, 63(9-10), 957-963.
    6. Askool, S. S. and Nakata, K. (2010), Scoping study to identify factors influencing the acceptance of social CRM, Proceedings of the2010 IEEE International Conference on Management of Innovation & Technology, Singapore, 205-220.
    7. Baird, C. H. and Parasnis, G. (2011), From social media to social CRM: Reinventing the customer relationship, Strategy & Leadership, 39(6), 27-34.
    8. Charalambos, I. L. , Benbasat, I. , and Dexter, A. S. (1995), Electronic data interchange and small organizations: Adoption and impact of technology, MIS Quarterly, 19(4), 465-485.
    9. Constantinides, E. (2014), Foundations of social media marketing social and behavioral sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences, 148(1), 40-57.
    10. Cooper, R. B. and Zmud, R. W. (1990), Information technology implementation research: A technological diffusion approach, Management Science, 36(2), 123-139.
    11. Davis, F. D. , Bagozzi, R. P. , and Warshaw, P. R. (1989), User acceptance of computer technology: A comparison of two theoretical models, Management Science, 35(8), 982-1003.
    12. Echeng, R. , Usoro, A. , and Majewski, G. (2013), Acceptance of web 2.0 in learning in higher education: A case study Nigeria, International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 4(10), 146-151.
    13. Eid, R. (2007), Towards a successful CRM implementation in banks: An integrated model, The Service Industries Journal, 27(8), 1021-1039.
    14. Fishbein, M. and Ajzen, I. (1975), Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.
    15. Flavin, C. and Guinalíu, M. (2006), Consumer trust, perceived security and privacy policy: Three basic elements of loyalty to a web site, Industrial Management& Data Systems, 106(5), 601-620.
    16. Greenberg, P. (2010), CRM at the Speed of Light. In: CRM at the Speed of Light, NewYork: McGraw Hill, 1-10.
    17. Gu, J. , Lee, S. , and Suh, Y. (2009), Determinants of behavioral intention to mobile banking, Expert Systems with Applications, 36(9), 11605-11616.
    18. Guriting, P. and Ndubisi, N. (2006), Borneo online banking: evaluating customer perceptions and behavioural intention, Management Research News, 29(1-2), 6-15.
    19. Harrigan, P. , Soutar, G. , Choudhury, M. M. , and Lowe, M. (2015), Modelling CRM in a social media age, Australasian Marketing Journal, 23(1), 27-37.
    20. Hasani, T. , Bojei, J. , and Dehghantanha, A. (2017), Investigating the antecedents to the adoption of SCRM technologies by Startup companies, Telematics andInformatics, 34(5), 655-675.
    21. Höhler, G. (2016), Social CRM in German retail banks (How social media is transforming the business world), Bearing Point GmbH, Frankfurt.
    22. Igbaria, M. , Zinatelli, N. , and Covaye, A. (1998), Analysis of information technology success in small firms in New Zealand, International Journal of Information Management, 18(2), 103-119.
    23. KazımKirtiş, A. and Karahan, F. (2011), To be or not to be in social media arena as the most cost-efficient marketing strategy after the global recession, Social and Behavioral Sciences, 24(1), 260-268.
    24. Kuan, K. K. and Chau, P. Y. K. (2001), A perceptionbased model for EDI adoption in small businesses using a technology-organization-environment framework,Information & Management, 38(8), 507-521.
    25. Mehrtens, J. , Cragg, P. B. , and Annette, M. M. (2001),A model of Internet adoption by SMEs, Information &Management, 39(3), 165-176.
    26. Miller, L. C. and Berg, J. H. (1984), Selectivity and urgency in interpersonal exchange. In V. J. Derlega (Ed.), Communication, Intimacy, and Close Relationships (pp. 161-206), Academic Press, Orlando, FL., 161-205.
    27. O’Reilly, T. and Musser, J. (2006), Web 2.0 principles and best practices, O’Reilly Media.
    28. Paniagua, J. and Sapena, J. (2014), Business performance and social media: Love or hate?, Business Horizons,57(6), 719-728.
    29. Premkumar, G. and Roberts, M. (1999), Adoption of new information technologies in rural small businesses, Omega, 27(4), 467-84.
    30. Shearman, S. (2011), Campaign, [Online] Available from: http://www.campaignlive.co.uk/article/proving-socialmedias-roi/1049830.
    31. Sigala, M. (2007), Integrating Web 2.0 in e-learning environments: A socio-technical approach, International Journal of Knowledge and Learning, 3(6), 628-648.
    32. Stelzner, M. (2016), Social media examiner , Available from: http://www.socialmediaexaminer.com/report2016/.
    33. Trainor, K. J. , Andzulis, J. , Rapp, A. , and Agnihotric, R. (2013), A social media technology usage and customer relationship performance: A capabilities-based examination of social CRM, Journal of Business Research, 67(6), 1201-1208.
    34. Tsiakis, T. and Sthephanides, G. (2005),The concept of security and trust in electronic payments, Computers& Security, 24(1), 10-15.
    35. Ujwala, K. (2015), Social CRM in banking-need of the hour, International Journal Of Core Engineering & Management, 2(2), 42-49.
    36. Yiua, C. , Grantc, K. , and Edgar, D. (2007), Factors affecting the adoption of Internet Banking in Hong Kong implications for the banking sector, International Journal of Information Management, 27(5), 336-351.