Journal Search Engine
Search Advanced Search Adode Reader(link)
Download PDF Export Citaion korean bibliography PMC previewer
ISSN : 1598-7248 (Print)
ISSN : 2234-6473 (Online)
Industrial Engineering & Management Systems Vol.18 No.4 pp.619-629
DOI : https://doi.org/10.7232/iems.2019.18.4.619

Head and Face Anthropometric Study for Chinese Children

Fang Fu, Yan Luximon*
School of Design, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR
Corresponding Author, E-mail: yan.luximon@polyu.edu.hk
May 7, 2019 September 15, 2019 October 18, 2019

ABSTRACT


Anthropometric data are valuable when designing products for children. Study on anthropometric growth of children head becomes crucial for head related products such as helmets. Based on the literature, it would be helpful to explore physical growth of children at primary school age. In addition, the investigation on Chinese children’s growth has not been explored in details to discover the similarity and diversity among different ethnic groups, even though differences on head shape for adults have been found between Chinese and Caucasian. This study aims at indicating the growth of head and face for Chinese children using a combination of traditional measurement and 3D scanning technology, and comparing it with Caucasian ethnicity. In this study, 102 Chinese children aged between 5 to 12 years were recruited in Hong Kong. For each participant, six dimensions on head and face were recorded including head circumference, head length, head width, forehead width, face height and morphological face height. A set of growth references were analyzed indicating physical growth on the selected dimensions for Chinese children. All the head and face dimensions were found to keep continuously increasing from 5 to 12 years old. This study statistically verifies the differences of head growth among different age groups, and proposed a measuring strategy for future sizing study to design for Chinese children.



초록


    1. INTRODUCTION

    As a fundamental part in ergonomics, anthropometry is essential in related human-centred design process (Lehto and Landry, 2012). When design for children, specific considerations should be taken into account from physical and cognitive ergonomic perspective (Hourcade, 2006). With the physical growth and development of children, seeking a proper fit for children is different from adult population. Researchers have investigated the anthropometry of children to seek proper fit for diverse products, involving footwear (Mauch et al., 2008), backpack (Mououdi et al., 2018), and furniture (Lee et al., 2018). As for head-related product design, the anthropometry on physical growth of head and face is essential when designing for children.

    Various studies were conducted on physical growth of children’s head for different populations, such as British (Cole et al., 1998), American (Kuczmarski et al., 2000), Chinese (Li and Zhang, 2002), Turkish (Neyzi et al., 2008), and Swedish (Wikland et al., 2008). In these longitudinal growth studies, large sample size was selected to describe the physical growth scientifically, while only head circumference was included as head dimension, which maybe not sufficient for various head-related designs. To meet the increasing requirements of headrelated products, researchers have investigated the growth of different head and face dimensions (Beek et al., 1991;Farkas et al., 1992;Arboleda et al., 2010;Wen et al., 2017). Most of previous research used traditional mea-surements (Beek et al., 1991;Farkas et al., 1992;Arboleda et al., 2010) or photogrammetric method (Wen et al., 2017) to obtain the anthropometric measurements. However, the methods were less accurate and more timeconsuming when comparing with 3D scanning measurement (Simmons and Istook, 2003). Hence, there is a need to explore children’s growth of head and face with 3D scanning for related design.

    Traditional measurement was the mostly used method in previous anthropometric studies, with the tools such as tape and caliper in head-related studies (Beek et al., 1991;Farkas et al., 1992;Arboleda et al., 2010). The measuring method is easy to control certain bias factors caused by the hair, while the disadvantages were also obvious including difficulty to acquire certain dimensions on the edge and time-consuming procedure. To overcome the limitations of traditional measurement, 3D scanning technology has been widely used in recent anthropometric studies for adults (Choi and Ashdown, 2011;Luximon et al., 2012), while researchers started to apply 3D scanning technology in head anthropometry for children (Ran et al., 2017). Some challenges occur when scanning the head and face for children. Specifically, some inevitable body movements of energetic children may make the data collection difficult to conduct (Dou et al., 2015), and the scanned point cloud may not present some particular regions covered by hair. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of both measuring techniques, measuring strategy should be explored to study children’s head and face anthropometry.

    For Chinese children, researchers have revealed the physical growth of the head and face dimensions in previous studies. A national standard (GB/T 26160-2010, 2010) indicated the dynamic changes of the head and face dimensions when dividing 4 to 17 years old children into five age groups. Li conducted an anthropometric investigation on head circumference for children under 7 years old (Li, 2009). However, these studies mostly contained limited dimensions and age intervals with traditional measurements. Although Ran et al. (2017) used 3D scanning technology to measure selected head dimensions, some of which acquired from the 3D point cloud of scanned head may not exactly presented the dimensions considering the hair obstacle. Therefore, research on more dimensions and age groups is necessary to provide a sufficient growth reference for Chinese children, and differences between various measuring methods also need to be addressed.

    For ergonomic design, anthropometry for targeted population is very essential to cater specific market. To meet the increasing requirements of customers, new functionalities and appearances have to be innovative for head-related products, such as helmets, goggles, and masks. For a particular product, comparative study on anthropometry between different ethnicities can be used to discover the similarity and diversity of various markets. Between Chinese and Caucasian, Cooke and Wei (1989) compared selected head dimensions for males at age of 12 years, and Ball et al. (2010) revealed the differences of head shape for adults. Similarly, comparison between Chinese and Caucasian on children anthropometry is needed when designing for children.

    This study employed a combination of traditional measurement and 3D scanning method to acquire anthropometric data for children in preschool and primary school aged between 5 to 12 years. The main aim of the study is to indicate the dynamic growth of head and face for Chinese children with the use of 3D scanning, compare the results with other study using different measuring strategy, and examine the differences of selected dimension between Chinese with other ethnicities.

    2. METHODS

    2.1 Participants

    102 Chinese children (57 males and 45 females) aged from 5 to 12 years were recruited in Hong Kong. They were divided into four age groups for further analysis, including age group 1 (5-6 years), age group 2 (7-8 years), age group 3 (9-10 years) and age group 4 (11-12 years). The demographic description for the participants is shown in Table 1.

    2.2 Data Collection

    Before data collection, a formal approval was requested from the guardian of the juvenile participant. For each participant, both traditional and 3D scanning measurement were taken to collect the anthropometric data. Six head and face dimensions were measured in the study, including head circumference, head length, head width, forehead width, face height, and morphological face height. Additionally, age and gender was recorded as basic demographic information for further analysis.

    To decrease the influence of hair, traditional measurement was taken for head circumference, head width, and head length. Specifically, a tape was used to measure the head circumference, and a caliper was used to measure the head length and head width. During measurement, the tape and caliper can be used to press the hair down so that the measurement can be taken from the surface of head as near as possible. Figure 1 presents the dimensions acquired from traditional measurements. These dimensions were measured according to measuring method from Farkas et al. (1992).

    Following the traditional measurements, the participant was required to wear a special designed latex cap (Luximon et al., 2012) and sit on a chair. Meanwhile, a plastic support was fixed in front where the participant could rest the chin to restrict head movement. The participant was asked to keep a natural countenance and sit still without movement during the scanning procedure. Artec Eva scanner was then used to obtain the 3D point cloud of the head and face. Figure 2 gives an example of the scanning results.

    The 3D model was later processed to acquire the selected dimensions in RapidForm software. The head model was cleaned and aligned in Frankfurt plane (Luximon et al., 2012). The plastic support was deleted in this process. Five landmarks, including glabella (gla), nasion (n), gnathion (gn), and frontotemporale (ft) left and right, were then positioned in the 3D model to further calculate forehead width (ft-ft), face height (gla-gn) and morphological face height (n-gn). The five landmarks and three dimensions are illustrated in Figure 3.

    2.3 Data Analysis

    The anthropometric data were analyzed in SPSS 20.0 software. Descriptive statistics was conducted to provide the general information of the selected dimensions for each age group, which indicated the physical growth of the head and face dimensions. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine significant differences among different age groups for male and female separately.

    3. RESULTS

    3.1 Growth Curves Indicating the Physical Growth

    Statistical description of all the dimensions for each age group are shown for both genders in Table 2 and Table 3 separately. The mean values revealed that all the selected dimensions continually grew from 5 years to 12 years for both males and females. Standard deviation, minimum value, and maximum value for each age group were also calculated. Based on the mean values, growth curves of the dimensions were plotted in Figure 4 for an intuitional view.

    3.2 Differences among Age Groups

    ANOVA was conducted on the dimensions under the variable of age group. The results for males and females are listed in Table 4 and Table 5 respectively. It was discovered that five dimensions, including head circumference, head length, forehead width, face height and morphological face height, had significant changes among different age groups, while no statistically significant difference was found on the means of head width. Specifically, forehead width gradually increased with significant differences from age group 1 to age group 3 for both males and females, while related results on other dimensions varied by gender. As to head circumference and head length, there were significant increase from age group 1 to age group 3 for males, and from age group 1 to group 2 for females. Face height and morphological face height had statistically significant growth from age group 1 to age group 4 for males, and from age group 1 to age group 3 for females.

    4. DISCUSSION

    Growth study is important to provide references for multiple applications, such as ergonomic design and medical use. With a combination of traditional measuring and 3D scanning methods, the head dimensions were found increasing with age from 5 years to 12 years for Chinese children in Hong Kong. It was also found that the physical growth for children’s head differed by gender and specific dimensions.

    For both males and females, the average values of selected dimensions for different age groups indicated the physical growth of head and face. These dimensions grew gradually from age group 1 (5-6 years) to age group 4 (11-12 years), which is consistent with previous literature (Ran et al., 2017). Compared with American Caucasian (Farkas et al., 1992), Chinese children have smaller head circumference, smaller head length, larger head width and lager forehead width, which is consistent with the comparison findings for adults (Goto et al., 2013).

    The growth differences between age groups varied on the specific head dimensions. Head circumference and head length for females had significant growth between 5 years and 8 years, while the dimensions for males increased significant between 5 years and 12 years. For both genders, head width grew slowly without significant difference between adjacent age groups within the age range of 5 to 12 years. In addition, forehead width significantly increased from 5 years for both genders and then stabilized from 9 years for males and from 11 years for females. For face height and morphological face height, it was found that females significantly grew from 5 years to 10 years, but males remained significant increase until 12 years. These results were consistent to the literature for other ethnic groups (Farkas et al., 1992;Arboleda et al., 2010). Farkas et al. (1992) concluded that females reached maturation at a younger age than males for head circumference, head length, head width and forehead width. Arboleda et al. (2010) also found that overall change in head width was less than head length, and growth velocity decreased for females ahead of males with the age increase.

    Measuring strategy in the study was proposed considering the advantages and disadvantages of both 3D scanning and direct measuring methods. A combination of 3D scanning and traditional was suggested for head anthropometry on children. As an efficient technique in anthropometry, 3D scanning was used to present the surface shape of head and face model. Different dimensions, such as forehead width, face height, and morphological face height, can be obtained from the 3D shape. Many researchers used 3D scanning to measure the head and face dimensions for children (Goto et al., 2013;Ran et al., 2017). However, due to the principle of 3D scanning technique, one of the challenges for head anthropometry using 3D scanning is hair obstacles. Even though researchers used a special designed cap (Luximon et al., 2012) to cover and press the hair, the thickness above the hair region still cannot be ignored. In the study, direct measurement using tape or caliper was selected for the dimensions influenced by surrounded hair, such as head circumference, head length, and head width. In order to compare to the results in previous study (Ran et al., 2017), 7 to 8 years and 9 to10 years age groups were combined together and calculated. The results found that the mean values of head circumference head length and head width were smaller than 3D scanning measurement for Chinese children (Ran et al., 2017).

    Additionally, limitations need to be addressed for a better understanding of the findings in the study. Due to the difficulty of scanning children, the sample size may not be sufficient to present the physical growth of the large Chinese population. In the meanwhile, variation of the head and face morphology among diverse areas in China may also influence the generalization of the findings. More locations and larger sample size should be considered in the future study.

    5. CONCLUSION

    This study provides anthropometric information on head and face growth for Chinese children in Hong Kong. A set of references on various dimensions were presented including the head circumference, head length, head width, forehead width, face height, and morphological face height. Similar with Caucasian, the head dimensions of Chinese children were found to keep growing from 5 to 12 years old. However, morphological characteristics of head and face growth for Chinese children were found to be different from Caucasians. Chinese children were found to have smaller head circumference, smaller head length, larger head width and larger forehead width. Moreover, this study statistically verifies the differences of head growth among different age groups for males and females respectively. The physical growth under the variables of age and gender varied on specific head and face dimensions. These anthropometric references could be used to indicate the dynamic growth of head and face for Chinese children, which can be valuable for multiple purposes such as product design and medical application. Besides, the study proposed measuring strategy of head anthropometry with a combination of traditional measuring and 3D scanning methods, which could be more accurate for children.

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    This study was supported by Hong Kong RGC/GRF project B-Q57F.

    Figure

    IEMS-18-4-619_F1.gif

    The dimensions acquired from traditional measuring method.

    IEMS-18-4-619_F2.gif

    An example of scanning result from Artec scanner

    IEMS-18-4-619_F3.gif

    Landmarks and dimensions in 3D head model acquired with 3D scanning technique.

    IEMS-18-4-619_F4.gif

    Growth curves of (a) head circumference, (b) head length, (c) head width, (d) forehead width, (e) face height, and (f) morphological face height.

    Table

    Demographic information of participants.

    General description of anthropometric growth for males (mm)

    General description of anthropometric growth for females (mm)

    ANOVA results of dimensions for males (mm)

    ANOVA results of dimensions for females (mm)

    REFERENCES

    1. Arboleda, C. , Buschang, P. H. , Camacho, J. A. , Botero, P. , and Roldan, S. (2010), A mixed longitudinal anthro pometric study of craniofacial growth of Colombian mestizos 6–17 years of age, The European Journal of Orthodontics, 33(4), 441-449.
    2. Ball, R. , Shu, C. , Xi, P. , Rioux, M. , Luximon, Y. , and Molenbroek, J. (2010), A comparison between Chinese and Caucasian head shapes, Applied Ergonomics, 41(6), 832-839.
    3. Beek, M. V. D. , Hoeksma, J. B. , and Prahl-Andersen, B. (1991), Vertical facial growth: A longitudinal study from 7 to 14 years of age, The European Journal of Orthodontics, 13(3), 202-208.
    4. Choi, S. and Ashdown, S. P. (2011), 3D body scan analysis of dimensional change in lower body measurements for active body positions, Textile Research Journal, 81(1), 81-93.
    5. Cole, T. J. , Freeman, J. V. , and Preece, M. A. (1998), British 1990 growth reference centiles for weight, height, body mass index and head circumference fitted by maximum penalized likelihood, Statistics in medicine, 17(4), 407-429.
    6. Cooke, M. S. and Wei, S. H. (1989), A comparative study of southern Chinese and British Caucasian cephalometric standards, The Angle Orthodontist, 59(2), 131-138.
    7. Dou, M. , Taylor, J. , Fuchs, H. , Fitzgibbon, A. , and Izadi, S. (2015), 3D scanning deformable objects with a single RGBD sensor, Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Boston, 493-501.
    8. Farkas, L. G. , Posnick, J. C. , and Hreczko, T. M. (1992), Anthropometric growth study of the head, The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 29(4), 303-308.
    9. GB/T 26160-2010 (2010), Head-face Dimensions of Chinese Minors, General Administration of Quality Supervision.
    10. Goto, L. , Molenbroek, F. M. J. , and Goossens, H. M. R. (2013), 3D Anthropometric data set of the head and face of children aged 0.5-7 years for design applications, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on 3D Body Scanning Technologies, Switzerland, 157-165.
    11. Hourcade, J. P. (2006), Design for children. In Salvendy G. Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics, Third Edition, New York, Wiley, 1446-1458.
    12. Kuczmarski, R. J. , Ogden, C. L. , and Guo, S. S. (2000), CDC growth charts for the United States: Methods and development, Vital and Health Statistics, 11(246), 1-190.
    13. Lee, Y. , Kim, Y. M. , Lee, J. H. , and Yun, M. H. (2018), Anthropometric mismatch between furniture height and anthropometric measurement: A case study of Korean primary schools, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 68, 260-269.
    14. Lehto, M. R. and Landry, S. J. (2012), Introduction to Human Factors and Ergonomics for Engineers, CRC Press.
    15. Li, H. and Zhang, X. (2002), Growth curves of children from birth to 7 years of age, Chinese Journal of Pediatrics, 40(11), 662-666.
    16. Li, H. (2009), Growth standardized values and curves based on weight, length/height and head circumference for Chinese children under 7 years of age, Chinese Journal of Pediatrics, 47(3), 173-178.
    17. Luximon, Y. , Ball, R. , and Justice, L. (2012), The 3D Chinese head and face modelling, Computer-Aided Design, 44(1), 40-47.
    18. Mauch, M. , Michle, K. J. , Munro, B. J. , Dowling, A. M. , Grau, S. , and Steele, J. R. (2008), Do the feet of German and Australian children differ in structure? Implications for children’s shoe design, Ergonomics, 51(4), 527-539.
    19. Mououdi, M. A. , Akbari, J. , and Mousavinasab, S. N. (2018), Ergonomic design of school backpack by using anthropometric measurements for primary school students (6-12 years), International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 67, 98-103.
    20. Neyzi, O. , Gunoz, H. , Furman, A. , Bundak, R. , Gokcay, G. , Darendeliler, F. , and Bas, F. (2008), Weight, height, head circumference and body mass index references for Turkish children, Cocuk Sagligi Ve Hastalikari Dergisi, 51(1), 1-14.
    21. Ran, L. , Zhang, X. , and Liu, T. (2017), Anthropometric measurement of the head of Chinese children, Proceedings of International Conference on DigitalHuman Modeling and Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics and Risk Management, Vancouver, 39-46.
    22. Simmons, K. P. and Istook, C. L. (2003), Body measurement techniques: Comparing 3D body-scanning and anthropometric methods for apparel applications, Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 7(3), 306-332.
    23. Wen, Y. F. , Wong, H. M. , and McGrath, C. P. (2017), A longitudinal study of facial growth of Southern Chinese in Hong Kong: Comprehensive photogrammetric analyses, PloS one, 12(10), e0186598.
    24. Wikland, K. A. , Luo, Z. C. , Niklasson, A. , and Karlberg, J. (2002), Swedish population‐based longitudinal reference values from birth to 18 years of age for height, weight and head circumference, Acta Pediatrica, 91(7), 739-754.