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ISSN : 1598-7248 (Print)
ISSN : 2234-6473 (Online)
Industrial Engineering & Management Systems Vol.19 No.1 pp.14-25
DOI : https://doi.org/10.7232/iems.2020.19.1.014

Reserves in Agro-Industrial Complex during Integration of Energy Conservation Processes and Transition to the Concept of Energy- Conserving Production

Gulnara D. Amanova*, Bibigul Zh. Akimova, Gauhar Zh. Zhumabekova, Margarita A. Zholayeva, Zinegul O. Urazbayeva
Department of Accounting and Analysis, L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Nur-Sultan, Republic of Kazakhstan
Department of Accounting and Audit, Kazakh University of Technology and Business, Nur-Sultan, Republic of Kazakhstan
Department of Accounting and Analysis, L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Nur-Sultan, Republic of Kazakhstan
Corresponding author, gul-aman@murdoch.in
November 11, 2019 February 6, 2020 February 12, 2020

ABSTRACT


The authors conducted the economic analysis of the efficiency of using the reserves of the agro-industrial complex during the integration of energy conservation processes and the transition to energy conserving production. The authors used various theoretical and analytical methods, since the energy sector is more susceptible to permanent forecasting and planning, because present state energy policy depends on the knowledge of available and consumed energy resources in the future. It was established that the agro-industrial complex can be an important source of “green” energy, since waste, organic oils, wood can be recycled and in such way clean energy can be obtained. This significantly saves natural resources, time for transportation, processing, marketing. In addition, agriculture is the most attractive industry for economic investment in the world. It was determined that the state policy in the field of alternative energy sources is unique for each country, which is due to the specifics of economic development and the climatic conditions.



초록


    1. INTRODUCTION

    Green trends are successfully taking root in agribusiness. Alternative energy, the use of alternative types of energy successfully fits into the business model of many agricultural enterprises. Only the use of agricultural waste can replace 9 billion cubic meters of gas per year. Moreover, farmers can get such a quantity of fuel by directing only 37% of agricultural waste to energy needs with an average yield of energy crops of 11.5 million tons per year per 1 million hectares (Kumar and Samadder, 2017). Energy in agriculture today has faced numerous problems that require a comprehensive solution from the authorities and company management (Figure 1).

    In addition to a high percentage of depreciation of equipment and communications, the energy sector in agriculture faced a global dependence on fuel and energy resources and their deficit, as well as a constant increase in fuel prices, which affects the cost of production (Assembayeva et al., 2017;Mikayilov et al., 2018). Therefore, energy in agriculture suffers certain losses, which negatively affects not only the cost of production, but also its quality and competitiveness. In this regard, the government needs to develop various programs for the development of energy conservation in the country’s agro-industrial complex, aimed at developing the industry (Silagadze, 2019). In particular, the development of energy in agriculture is determined by the following priorities: to upgrade existing power supply systems or switch to adaptive systems; to reduce the degree of wear of electrical networks; to reduce energy losses and operating costs; to use whenever possible intelligent electrical networks (Amanova et al., 2020).

    Currently, energy in agriculture has already em-barked on the path of re-equipment and modernisation. In addition to government programs, the owners of agricultural facilities are independently trying to solve some issues by actively introducing new technologies for energy conservation (Kaldiyarov et al., 2014;Lund et al., 2017;Shu et al., 2017). Energy in agriculture is actively switching to the use of energy-conserving lamps, low-energy technologies, combination of fuel sources and re-equipping the technical park. To date, no one doubts that the energy sector in agriculture needs a partial transition to alternative energy sources, which contributes to energy conservation and will help to resolve issues with power outages, as well as environmental problems of a different nature (Kroposki et al., 2017). At the same time, agricultural products can be used for energy processing. Waste-free production begins to be introduced, which allows to reduce energy consumption and fuel dependence of the industry. “Sugar mills” are already used for energy and heat production, and waste from juice production has been widely used for biogas production. This also in-cludes photo- and bio-energy installations and thermal deposits (Collet et al., 2017). Energy in agriculture can also be transformed thanks to intelligent electric networks, which represent a single automated system that accumulates and tracks all participants in the energy supply process, as well as the state of communications in general, which contributes to uninterrupted supply and a decrease in the influence of the human factor (Kireev et al., 2016). It can be argued that the energy sector in agriculture has come to a new milestone in its history, when the paramount task is to increase the efficiency of agricultural production through automation and electro-mechanisation of technological processes. Global food systems need to reduce their dependence on fossil fuels in order to provide food to the growing world population.

    2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

    As a result of the formation of a scientific ap-proach to the development of forecasts or plans for macroeconomic development at the level of individual states, special national characteristics appear. The energy sector is more susceptible to permanent planning forecasting, because present state energy policy depends on the knowledge of available and consumed energy resources in the future. Therefore, on the example of this industry, one can trace the evolution and change of methodological approaches to the formation of the energy industry (MacGregor, 2017). Using the analysis method, it was found that there is reasonable cause for concern that the current dependence of the food sector on fossil fuels may limit the sector's ability to meet global food demand. The main objective is to separate food prices from volatile and rising fossil fuel prices. The amount of energy consumed in the world is shown in Figure 2.

    This dependence indicates the nonlinearity of interbranch production relations and the instability of their quantitative manifestations. The consequence of this is the great convention of any generalised quantitative estimates of these relationships. Electricity production in Kazakhstan decreased (The capacity of renewable energy facilities in Kazakhstan increased over the year by 1.4 times, 2019). It is significant that the energy consumption in this case runs counter to the dynamics of the decline: a growth of 1 percent is recorded. According to the Committee on Statistics of the Ministry of National Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan, electricity production for January-May of this year amounted to 44.3 billion kilowatts per hour – 4.9 percent less compared to the same period last year (46.7 billion kilowatts per hour). In value terms, the production, transmission and distribution of electricity amounted to 449.9 billion tenge, against 520.5 billion tenge a year earlier. In general, in January-December of 2018, electricity generation amounted to 107.1 billion kilowatts per hour (a year earlier – 103.1 billion kilowatts per hour). The amount of energy con-sumed in Kazakhstan is presented in Figure 3.

    Therefore, the use of environmental fuel emis-sions is also necessary because the structure of the for-mation of the cost price and tariffs for centralised electricity is such that if to take the cost of production and distribution of electricity at 100%, then its components by the levels of formation will be as follows (Table 1).

    From Table 1 it follows that the cost price of generating electricity by power plants is only about 1/4 of the total cost, and this is mainly due to the fact that very large TPPs, CHPs, HPPs occupy huge distribution areas (Gür, 2018). For example, in Kazakhstan, agriculture is the leading sector of the country’s economy. Its production in the gross domestic product of the state occupies more than 7%. Over the past 15 years, the agricultural sector has been developing steadily. Its growth in main types of products ranges from 60% to 2 times (Table 2).

    The report, “Food that takes into account the energy factor for people and the climate” says that high and volatile prices for fossil fuels and doubts about their availability in the future mean that agro-industrial com-plexes need to switch to a model of using alternative energy sources. The food sector consumes energy and produces it itself, and an approach to agriculture that takes into account the energy factor offers a way to better take advantage of this two-way interaction between energy and food.

    3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

    3.1 Features of the Development of Energy in Agriculture

    Agricultural requirements for other sectors are formed through a system of complex direct and indirect ties. They have a direct impact on those industries that satisfy its needs for fixed assets and current costs (machinery, mechanisation, electrical equipment, electricity, fuels and lubricants, etc.), and those that are consumers of agricultural products – food and light industry. For example, direct electricity consumption by agriculture makes up 7-9% of its production, and taking into account its consumption in sectors associated with agriculture, it increases to 18-23% (Ahmad et al., 2017;Nwulu and Xia, 2017). When using traditional sources of pollution, a significant number of polluting substances enters the environment. For example, the burning of fuel oil produces a significant amount of harmful substances (V2O5, Ni2J3, Ni2O3, PbO2, Cr2O3, etc.). This indicates that, when assessing the environmental, socio-economic effect of atmospheric protection measures, the traditional accounting for the reduction of only sulphur and nitrogen oxides, as well as ash, is clearly insufficient (Gils et al., 2017;Xue, 2017;Yang et al., 2018). The existing idea of the need to fight primarily with these compounds is based on incomplete data. The danger posed by micronutrients, natural radionuclides, hydrocarbons falling into an unusual environment – air – must be weighed along with the danger posed by sulphur and nitrogen oxides – compounds inherent in living nature. After all, plants in the pollution zone are more weakened and sensitive to fungal diseases, which reduces the quality of crop production.

    It was revealed that the most dangerous ingredients of industrial pollution, affecting crop loss and changing its quality, are industrial dust, sulphur compounds, phenols. Therefore, measures to reduce especially these emissions are so important for increasing crop yields in the polluted zone. With the help of treatment facilities, only large-scale dust can be precipitated, i.e. heavy. Light dust hanging in the air is not available to them. Not absolute air purification from fine particles of ash by dust cleaning technology So, in a typical cyclone, ash particles of 15 μm in size are captured by 96%, and particles of 5 μm only by 30%. Plants release air from dust of any size (Caetano et al., 2017;Khan et al., 2018). Therefore, ecological methods are increasingly being used to protect air from emissions. Consequently, the use of energy from agricultural products will contribute not only to saving natural resources, but also to reducing environmental damage.

    World food production needs to be explored on how to use energy more wisely. At each stage of the pro-duction chain, current practices can be adapted to consume less energy. Such efficiency is often achieved by modifying existing practices in the farming and processing industries with minimal or no cost. But using local renewable energy resources across the production chain will help improve access to energy, diversify farmers and process industries, minimise food waste, reduce dependence on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions, and help achieve sustainable development goals. Where there is good solar, wind, water and geothermal resources and biomass energy, they can be used as an alternative to fossil fuels in farming and aquaculture. They can also be used in storage and handling. For example, sugar mills already use residual materials to co-generate heat and energy. So-called “wet processing waste” such as waste and tomato skin from juice production can be used to produce biogas. Millions of bioreactors for biogas production at home are already used by farmers in developing countries.

    In modern society, in view of the reduction in hydrocarbon reserves, the issue of energy conservation and the use of renewable energy sources is becoming ever more acute. Currently, the share of renewable energy sources in Kazakhstan’s energy consumption is negligible and amounts to 0.02% (Figure 4). While in developed countries, the share of renewable energy is a significant part of energy consumption.

    Energy consumption issues are already being addressed at the legislative level, so on January 13, 2012, the President of Kazakhstan signed the Law “On Energy Conserving and Improving Energy Efficiency”. The law aims to create a national infrastructure in the field of energy conservation to ensure the transition of the economy to energy-efficient development (Wang et al., 2019).

    Figure 5 shows a distribution diagram of the main types of officially registered autonomous and renewable energy sources in the Republic of Kazakh-stan.

    The diagram shows that the main share in the use of alternative and renewable energy sources is occu-pied by heat pumps. Heat pumps are one of the most promising renewable energy sources, as its use does not depend on weather conditions (wind power, solar energy). In this regard, the share of heat pumps in renewable energy sources in Kazakhstan is 78% (Ren and Dong, 2018). However, in the share of thermal energy generation relative to traditional boiler plants and thermal power plants, the use of heat pumps is very small. In this regard, it is necessary to analyse the low use of heat pumps to generate thermal energy.

    3.2 Analysis of the Efficiency of Using Biogas as an Energy Source in Agriculture

    The transition to energy-sensitive agriculture is a complex process that requires a long-term vision and should start now. Anaerobic bioreactors are plants for the production of energy and waste reduction in agriculture. There are several types of anaerobic bioreactors, but usually they efficiently process spent raw materials that are consumed as energy. Covered lagoons are decomposers limited by impermeable and gas-tight materials to capture biogas (Blades et al., 2017). These systems can produce biogas at natural outdoor temperatures. Since they do not heat up, biogas production seasonally varies depending on the ambient temperature. It is advisable to use feedstock with a dry matter content of 0.5-3% in the lagoon. These systems have the lowest cost, but also have the lowest biogas production for all biogas plants. Hydraulic downtime (HRT) ranges from 40 to 60 days.

    Mixing bioreactors are anaerobic biogas plants with temperature control, constant volume and a me-chanical stirrer. Under these conditions, the growth of anaerobic bacteria and methane production are maximal. The raw material moves in the reactor and, unlike the flow reactor, is uniformly mixed throughout. The advantage of full mixing is that the waste can be used with a content of 2 to 12% dry matter (Sansaniwal et al., 2017). Fixed bed bioreactors also heat up and have an inert environment in which anaerobic bacteria grow in the form of biofilms. They have a constant volume, and the flow through them is also constant. However, the system only works for diluted raw materials with 0-2% dry matter, such as liquid farm waste. HRT is 3-5 days. Compared to other biogas plants, biogas is of the highest quality – it contains more than 80% of biomethane. For example, in Kazakhstan, a small percentage of biogas-based energy is used; their amount is indicated in the Figure 6 as other sources.

    As an option for using renewable energy sources in agriculture, the use of biofuels derived from vegetable oils, cereals, biomass and other renewable energy sources should be mentioned. Since biogas is a mixture of methane and other gases, it can be used in natural gas or liquid propane applications (Tezer et al., 2017;Hossain et al., 2017). Currently, most of the biogas is used to generate electricity as fuel for an engine that drives a generator or microturbine. It can also be used in boiler plants for hot water and heating, as well as for cogeneration of electricity and heat (Sütterlin and Siegrist, 2017). However, in most cases, biogas cannot be used as a direct gas substitute unless changes are made to the combustion systems of natural gas or liquid propane, since biogas can cause corrosion of metals. Biodiesel is mainly fuel oil (rapeseed, camellia and sunflower), close to conventional diesels that can be used in conventional diesel engines without the need for modification. Bioethanol is obtained from the fermentation of carbohydrates and burned more clean than gasoline and diesel. It is used for specially designed ethanol engines.

    Geothermal energy is the heat of the Earth and is a renewable source of energy. It is stored as thermal energy in underground hot water systems under high pressure and steam, as well as in rock masses under the earth’s surface. It can be used to generate electricity at a geothermal power plant, hot water, steam heating or a heat pump. For agriculture, this is also suitable, but there are some specific applications of geothermal sources. Geothermal water is primarily used for heating greenhouses, livestock farms and other types of agricultural buildings and for irrigation. Open crop fields can be protected from freezing in winter by geothermal irrigation. The plumbing system is used underground. Basic geothermal energy is used for greenhouses. They need a constant temperature that can be maintained with geothermal water (Meyer et al., 2018). Manufacturers can use various pipe systems to heat the air and soil heaters, as well as irrigation systems. Depending on the optimal temperature regime for crops, a set of methods is selected. In addition, geothermal sources as a heat resource can be used for drying crops.

    The development strategy of the village’s energy base consists of promising areas and targets for the development of energy supply systems and means, reducing the energy intensity of agricultural production and increasing its energy efficiency, increasing the comfort of living and working for rural residents, as well as the projected energy needs and the structure of energy carriers. The importance of rational energy supply for agricultural enterprises has increased in recent years, due to the expansion and deepening of electrification, electromechanisation and automation of technological processes, as well as the disproportionate (prevailing) increase in energy tariffs compared to agricultural prices, which significantly increased the energy component in the cost of production (Zhang et al., 2016;Vasco-Correa et al., 2018). Reliabil-ity and quality of energy supply significantly decreased, the number and duration of power outages and heat supply outages increased for various reasons, so that for all energy indicators there is a lag compared to advanced countries. In the presence of significant energy reserves, both traditional and local, their use in agriculture has not yet become rational and efficient. Therefore, the issues of assessing and forecasting the energy needs of enterprises, improving the structure of energy carriers, improving the reliability and quality of electricity, reducing losses in electric and heat networks, developing new types of fuel and energy, developing and introducing energy-saving technologies and equipment, making extensive use of decentralised systems, local and renewable energy resources, up to the self-sufficiency of energy for a number of enterprises, have become even more relevant.

    The growth of agricultural productivity, agricul-tural production volumes is determined by the revival and strengthening of farms, the introduction of new technologies, an increase in the level of comprehensive electromechanisation of agricultural production, its energy and electrical equipment, which will require an increase in energy and electricity consumption. On the other hand, increasing agricultural productivity, improving and implementing new energy-saving technologies, energy-efficient equipment and machinery, pursuing an energy-saving policy, and rational use of energy resources will reduce unit costs in agricultural production, i.e. reduce the energy intensity of production and reach the planned level of its reduction – by 40% by 2020 and by 60% by 2030. By 2030 and beyond, the production of electric, thermal energy and biofuels will increase significantly (up to 15% of the village’s needs) locally by independent producers using means and equipment of “small energy”, based on the use of local and renewable energy resources, agricultural waste. The most important component of reducing the energy intensity of production will be the implementation and development of newly developed and already developed new energy, heat and electrical technologies and energy-efficient energy equipment. A number of developments in this direction are already entering the implementation stage.

    Agriculture is an energy intensive industry. In recent decades, for every percent of growth in gross agri-cultural output, energy expenditures have increased by 3-4%. The annual energy consumption in agriculture in Russia is about 130 million tons of fuel equivalent, and considering local types of fuel – more than 150 million tons. The energy needs of agricultural production and the housing and communal sector in the village can be met both by using electric energy and various types of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, as well as local renewable energy sources. In different areas of the country, the use of each of them is characterised by different energy and technical and economic indicators and requires comparative calculations. Forecasts of needs for fuel and energy resources, compiled by expert organisations for the next 15-20 years, differ from each other by 12 – 20%. It is difficult to predict the socio-political factors that influence the policy of pricing products in such a large system as the fuel and energy complex. To reduce the risk of errors, it is necessary to carry out short-term forecasts using economic estimates, and long-term forecasts, taking into account energy indicators. The economic indicator in work is the cost of a unit of thermal energy, determined on the basis of recommendations for evaluating the effectiveness of investment projects and business plans in the energy sector, taking into account current energy tariffs and equipment prices. It is proposed to use the energy equivalent of expenses (EEE) for thermal energy as an energy indicator, calculated considering nature of the load, the consumption season, and the type of primary energy resource.

    Nevertheless, a further search is necessary for possible ways of energy conserving and to determine the impact of energy conserving measures on production efficiency, as well as on the social sphere of society. To justify the development of gasification, the degree of involvement in the fuel and energy balance of electricity and renewable energy at 1 area level, more research are required. In the agricultural industry, as in any other, there is a large amount of waste. Today there is the problem of their destruction. The easiest way to take them away from the farms and leave as is. But precisely because of this, in such places the soil is oxidised, greenhouse gas spreads in the atmosphere, groundwater is polluted, and the land becomes unsuitable for agricultural work. But in fact, the same waste can be an excellent raw material for energy, biogas can be extracted from almost all. So it turns out that two problems can be solved at once: to resolve the issue of waste disposal and to get additional energy, and it turns out that agriculture really needs it. In Russia, for example, only 37% of agricultural land is connected to network gas.

    It was estimated that processed biogas will be able to replace the thermal energy of the whole country by 15%, replenish natural gas reserves by 14% and electricity by 23%. And if all this is directed only to rural areas, then these resources will completely replace standard sources of gas and heat. When biogas is produced, a by-product is released, which is an organic fertiliser. If to buy biogas plants in bulk, they will pay for themselves in 2-3 years. The only problem is that agricultural organisations have nowhere to get an initial loan for such an acquisition. In this situation, subsidies from the state at interest rates can help. It is also wise to create special clusters based on the most powerful and successful agricultural companies.

    In the light of the current situation on the gas market, the issue of finding an alternative to gas energy is becoming increasingly relevant. Moreover, analysts predict more and more rapid price increases for this type of fuel and, as a result, crises associated with this around the world. Moreover, the gas industry often becomes a hostage to political regimes. For this reason, the need for renewable energy, in which the biogas industry occupies a significant part, is growing over time (Figure 7).

    For example, China became the third largest producer of ethanol-based biofuels in the world (after the United States and Brazil) at the end of the 10th five-year plan in 2005, currently ethanol makes up 20% of the total volume of car fuel consumed in China. At the moment, it is expected that production will increase to 15 megatons per year by 2020. Despite this level of production, experts say that there will be no threat to food security, although the number of farmers who engage in “oil farming” will rise if the price of crude oil continues to rise. Based on the planned projects for ethanol production, the volume of grain in some provinces will not be enough to provide raw materials for plants in these provinces. In a recently published World Economic Outlook, the International Monetary Fund expressed concern that increased competition between biofuels and agricultural food products could begin in the world. He also noted that competition is likely to lead to higher prices for crops (Figure 8).

    Active growth in the construction of biogas plants in European countries began due to government policies to improve the environmental situation and combat greenhouse gas emissions due to poor pro-cessing of domestic and industrial waste. Decomposition waste creates methane (the main component of biogas), which, without processing, enters the atmosphere, polluting the environment. Therefore, those companies in Europe engaged in the processing of domestic and industrial organic waste, the production of biogas, followed by the generation of electricity, heat and bioethanol received for this “green” tariffs, premiums and low interest rates on loans for such projects. After the for-mation of the bioenergy industry, farmers began to grow special energy crops that are fully used as raw materials for the production of biogas. In Germany, under such energy crops, more than 1.2 million hectares of land are cultivated (Figure 9).

    Biogas energy has several advantages over traditional built on natural gas. Its essence is to get energy from cheap and always available bio-waste. Bioenergy is produced and immediately consumed. In addition to bio-waste, it is also possible to process certain crops, such as corn silage. Biogas guarantees energy supply and full and high-quality waste disposal, thus protecting the environment and fully satisfies the human needs for energy. In the EU countries, annual biogas production is increasing by twenty percent. Its main sources are recycling, which in Europe, as elsewhere, is sufficient. Its share is about forty-two percent. Germany takes the leading place in the production of energy resources from bio-raw materials. There, more than half of the entire industry is converted to biofuel. In addition, Germany took an active course towards the development of this sphere and at this stage more than the rest of the countries succeeded in implementing its projects. Energy analysis is the determination of the energy costs of energy-consuming and energy-producing systems allowing to highlight the technical and technological aspects of the process. In practice, energy analysis and the associated analysis of economic factors for the production and processing of biomass by the agro-industrial method are quite complex. However, the use of cheap biomass waste to generate heat and electricity can be crucial in assessing the effectiveness of a process.

    3.3 Analysis of State Policy in the Field of Development of Alternative Energy Sources in the Agricultural Sector

    The problem of finding new renewable energy sources (RES) has been being attracted the attention of the world community for a long time. Their use can bring numerous economic and environmental benefits. Therefore, in different countries at the state or local levels, various methods are being undertaken. To achieve this goal, the following tasks should be solved:

    • – ensuring an economical, reliable, sustainable and safe energy supply to rural facilities while reduc-ing emergency outages and interruptions in rural energy supply by 2-3 times, increasing the level of safe operation of energy equipment (up to 50%) and the quality of electricity;

    • – development of promising areas, a development strategy and the creation of new generation electric grids that meet modern conditions for the distribution of electricity to rural consumers, including engineering systems in households, private household farms and farms that provide economic and environmental requirements;

    • – development of new methods of electric power transmission (including resonant) to rural consumers, which reduce transmission costs and energy losses; – reducing dependence on centralised energy supply for a number of rural consumers through self-supply of energy on the basis of their own and alternative energy sources with local energy production in accordance with the resources of the regions;

    • – development and implementation of decentralised systems of electricity and heat supply and small energy with widespread use of electricity, local and renewable energy resources, agricultural waste;

    • – development and implementation of an energy-saving intelligent heat supply system and creation of a microclimate in agricultural premises using the utilisation of low-grade heat, geothermal energy, thermoelectricity, aimed at creating optimal environmental conditions for animals and birds, allowing to realise their genetic potential to the maximum extent and ensure maximum productivity with a significant reduction energy intensity of production.

    • – development and mastering of technologies for producing biofuels through the processing of bio-mass, plant and wood waste, animal waste into liquid, gaseous and solid fuels, as well as obtain-ing high-quality organic fertilizers. – development of technologies and tools to improve the efficiency and widespread use of renewable energy sources (RES) in rural energy, reducing their cost and increasing efficiency.

    Agriculture is the most attractive investment in-dustry in the world. The use of natural forces and fuel resources in agriculture is developing at a slow pace. The main fuel resources of agriculture are firewood and oil, with the complete non-use of other types of local fuel and waste. The dynamics of the fuel balance do not show an improvement in its composition (in thousand tons of standard fuel) (Table 3):

    Meanwhile, firewood can easily be replaced with straw, and oil with alcohol. In connection with the organisation of large Zernotrest farms based on high machinery, the introduction of tractors and internal combustion engines, both of these problems require immediate resolution. In connection with the develop-ment of industrial processing of agricultural raw mate-rials, there are great opportunities for the use of other types of waste fuel: husks, sawdust, etc. Government measures lead to the creation of all conditions for the development of alternative energy sources. It is clearly seen in the Table 4.

    To date, the share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the global energy balance is small – about 14%, and biomass – about 1.8%. But, as practice shows, even slight fluctuations in the supply of energy resources in the markets cause strong changes in prices. This sug-gests that the role of alternative energy in strengthening stability in the markets for these resources will only grow in the future. In the structure of alternative energy in the world, biomass energy is up to 13%. According to scientists, the share of renewable energy sources will reach 47.7% by 2040, and the contribution of biomass to 23.8%.

    4. CONCLUSIONS

    Modern agriculture is the main source of green-house gas emissions, as well as one of the main consumers of fossil fuels. The price of agricultural products largely depends on the prices of fuel and energy, on average, these costs amount to 30-40% of the cost of the product. Therefore, it is advisable to evaluate alternative energy sources for future agriculture. Indeed, some types of agricultural work, such as irrigation, can be fed from renewable sources.

    State policy in the field of alternative energy sources is unique for each country, which is due to the specifics of economic development and climatic conditions. At the same time, a number of similar approaches can be singled out in the field of support for the development of renewable energy: increased tariffs for the sale of energy, subsidies, and tax benefits. Taking into account national characteristics is often the key to the success of the functioning of the national energy system. In connection with the development of production technologies and a significant deterioration of the environmental situation, mankind faces the problem of finding new sources of energy. Therefore, obtaining energy from agricultural products plays an important role in preserving the environment. It is possible to create biofuels from biological raw materials, which are used as stems of sugarcane or seeds of rape, corn, soy. Cellulose and various types of organic waste may also be used. Biomethanol is a type of liquid biofuel based on methyl (wood) alcohol, obtained by dry distillation of wood waste and the conversion of methane from biogas.

    Figure

    IEMS-19-1-14_F1.gif

    Distribution of energy conserving potential by industry.

    IEMS-19-1-14_F2.gif

    Worldwide energy consumption growth.

    IEMS-19-1-14_F3.gif

    The amount of energy consumed in the Republic of Kazakhstan, billion kWh.

    IEMS-19-1-14_F4.gif

    The share of alternative energy sources from the total energy consumption, %.

    IEMS-19-1-14_F5.gif

    Structural use of renewable energy in the Republic of Kazakhstan, %.

    IEMS-19-1-14_F6.gif

    Dynamics of the structure of fuel and energy resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the production of electricity for 1990-2030 (according to the Statistics Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan).

    IEMS-19-1-14_F7.gif

    Dynamics of biofuel production by market leaders.

    IEMS-19-1-14_F8.gif

    Average structure of expenses and incomes accumulated during the operation of a biogas plant.

    IEMS-19-1-14_F9.gif

    Growth in the number of biogas plants and the amount of electricity they generate in Germany.

    Table

    The share of agriculture in the consumption of products and services of certain industries (indicative estimate, 2020)

    Characteristics of individual natural and economic indicators of Kazakhstan

    The main fuel resources of agriculture

    Production of thermal energy from renewable energy sources in EU countries

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