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ISSN : 1598-7248 (Print)
ISSN : 2234-6473 (Online)
Industrial Engineering & Management Systems Vol.19 No.3 pp.484-497

A Practical Framework for Improving Profitability for High-Rise Buildings Projects in Saudi Arabia

Mohammed Essam Shaawat*, Abdulaziz S. Almohassen, Ahmed Abdul Aziz Al-Hamd
Department of Building Engineering, College of Architecture & Planning, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author, E-mail:
May 6, 2020 June 22, 2020 June 29, 2020


Safety on construction sites is of the highest importance due to the nature of the construction industry. In construction sites, there are always normal activities and high-risk activities that may cause injuries and accidents, and potentially fatalities. Work injuries usually occur because safety rules are not applied or because of a lack of awareness, or for many other reasons. Statistics from official organizations like the International Labour Organization (ILO) indicate that there is a death caused by work-related accidents every 15 seconds. Locally, the 33rd statistical report of the General Organization for Social Insurance (GOSI) indicates that there were 75,825 work injuries among the total number of insurance subscribers during 2012. The report also noted that most of the work injuries took place in construction site projects and manufacturing activities. To prevent and avoid these workplace injuries, safety laws must be strictly enforced. International organisations such as OSHA from the USA and HSE from the UK have developed standards that can be used for safety rules at construction sites. Injuries at construction sites are a global problem. In Saudi Arabia, the number of construction-related injuries is on the rise. Therefore, this research will address A Practical Framework for Implementing Construction Safety Assessments for High-rise Buildings in Saudi Arabia. The research methodology will evaluate 19 construction sites using design criteria (a checklist) based on international safety standards presented by organisations like OSHA and HSE. The results will then be analysed in two phases. The first is the extract ratio of relative importance index. Second one applies AHP technique to get the weight of categories. Last things for comparison is the weight with current situation. I found some categories have a high score level such as fire risk & first Aid. Some other categories were as medium such as PPE.



    The world is in the midst of a construction revolution; especially in the Gulf countries we are now seeing a lot of mega projects under construction and a strong trend strong towards building towers (high-rise buildings). Several elements must be available to implement these mega projects, including budget, equipment, materials, and the most important factor: human resources. Human resources are labourers, engineers and project managers, all of whom face risks when implementing project-related activities (see Figure 1).

    To maintain the safety of these project workers, some international safety organisations exist. The func-tion of these organizations is to establish laws to ensure the safety of workers. These laws are updated annually. Two examples of such regulatory organisations are the Health and Safety Executive organization (HSE) in the UK and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the USA. Such organizations have developed important rules to be applied in the field. The contractors must also set up a safety department to monitor the progress of the project and have the right to suspend any activity that does not follow the correct method.

    1.1 Problem Statement & Research Motivation

    Safety on construction sites is of the highest importance due to the nature of the construction industry. In construction sites, there are always normal activities and high-risk activities that may cause injuries and accidents, and potentially fatalities. Work injuries usually occur because safety rules are not applied or because of a lack of awareness, or for many other reasons. Statistics from official organizations like the International Labour Organization (ILO) indicate that there is a death caused by workrelated accidents every 15 seconds (Ahmadi and Movahed, 2019). Locally, the 33rd statistical report of the General Organization for Social Insurance (GOSI) indicates that there were 75,825 work injuries among the total number of insurance subscribers during 2012 (Hekmatpour and Burns, 2019). The report also noted that most of the work injuries took place in construction site projects and manufacturing activities. To prevent and avoid these workplace injuries, safety laws must be strictly enforced. International organisations such as OSHA from the USA and HSE from the UK have developed standards that can be used for safety rules at construction sites. Dehghani et al. (2020b) proposed a model for predection of surface motions using theoretical wave propagation models which often deviate from recorded surface ground motions complexity of wave propagation in soil media and the uncertainty in geotechnical material properties.

    Injuries at construction sites are a global problem. In Saudi Arabia, the number of construction-related injuries is on the rise. Therefore, this research will address A Practical Framework for Implementing Construction Safety Assessments for High-rise Buildings in Saudi Arabia as shown in Figure 2. The research methodology will evaluate 19 construction sites using design criteria (a checklist) based on international safety standards presented by organisations like OSHA and HSE. Outputs will include an assessment of the current situation and recommendations to improve the safety environment at these construction sites.

    The output of this study is expected to come out with recommendations that would improve site safety based on the current situation at construction sites in Saudi Arabia. It would also minimize human resource losses while working at construction sites. One of the outputs might be that the compensation for insurance companies due to accidents and work injuries would be decreased. This study is also expected to contribute to the vision of Saudi Arabia 2030 by increasing the average life expectancy in Saudi Arabia.


    2.1 Importance of Construction Safety

    Prior to beginning any construction project, it is vital to account for health and safety measures. These must be considered before even entering the construction site for the first time. The reason health and safety is so imperative is because the construction industry is particularly hazardous for employees. Among UK-based construction workers, 3% have suffered an injury at the work place and 4% have been diagnosed with an illness contracted due to the nature of their employment. Such health and safety risks can result in employees being dissatisfied with their employment, and also results in a reduction in human resource hours that can be allocated towards project completion (Bijleveld and Gerritse, 2006).

    2.2 Construction Work-Related Injury

    Forty-three fatal injuries took place on construction sites in the past year, which is a distressing amount. Employers working in 2015 and 2016 reported that the majority of construction site injuries resulted from trips, slips and falls. However, falling from a significant height, and handing or lifting materials also contribute to a number of injuries. It is clear that safety is of utmost importance within the construction industry. There are two main measures that can be undertaken to ensure safety on construction sites:

    • Tools: Equipping workers with the correct tools needed to safely carry out their tasks will go a long way towards accident prevention. Examples of safety-specific products include safety clothing and fall arrest harnesses.

    • Training: The nature of construction site accidents indicates that many occur due to inadequate worker training prior to engaging in construction work. Training can both upskill employees as well as increase their awareness regarding health and safety (Burtseva et al., 2020).

    2.3 Responsibility of the Employer

    The law makes it clear that businesses must operate with appropriate health and safety procedures. Consequences for not doing so include lawsuits, fines, and even suspension of operations. The HSE determine that a construction site is not sufficiently adhering to health and safety regulations, they are within their rights to engage in mitigating action. The HSE may also be altered to violations from employees themselves: employees can recommend their employer for HSE investigation if they consider their health and safety training was inadequate. Worker injury can have serious consequences for the employer. Serious injury may require a business to provide worker compensation, and an investigation into the incident may require construction to cease (Peled-Laskov and Timor, 2018).

    2.4 Benefits to Employers

    There are many benefits to a business that undertakes health and safety procedures beyond accident avoidance. Over the long term, such businesses will employ happier workers whose higher morale, ability and equipment can result in increased productivity. A reduction in illness and injury will directly result in a greater number of work hours. Finally, utilizing health and safety procedures will maintain long-term employees who take confidence from the business’ good reputation (Witherup and Verrecchia, 2019).

    2.5 Construction Sites with High-rise Buildings: Appropriate Safety Measures

    High-rise buildings are popular due to their many advantages, including architectural design, luxury, convenience and grade. Although this popularity has driven a trend in high-rise construction, it is important to be aware that occupancy of such buildings comes with a number of risks. High-rise construction is frequently accompanied by accident or injury due to

    • • falling debris,

    • • electrical shock or electrical equipment,

    • • crane and hoist operations,

    • • ladders,

    • • falling from heights,

    • • slips, and trips.

    Because of such risks, it is important for each construction site to employ a Project/Construction Management Team. This team is responsible for safety plans and protocols. Among many, their responsibilities include the (Saada and Suifan, 2020):

    • • installation of fixed and mobile scaffolding (including ladders and platforms),

    • • monitoring site status,

    • • ensuring health and welfare,

    • • fire prevention,

    • • designing an emergency plan,

    • • ensuring safety management throughout the organization,

    • • monitoring and controlling electro-mechanical activity,

    • • maintaining a temporary power supply,

    • • facilitating storage,

    • • controlling for waste and pollution,

    • • enabling administration of first aid,

    • • overseeing evacuation when necessary.

    2.6 UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE)

    In the United Kingdom (UK) the body tasked with ensuring health, safety and welfare within the workplace is the HSE. While the HSE covers much of the UK, in Northern Ireland these tasks are the responsibility of the Health and Safety Executive for Northern Ireland. The HSE, headquartered in Bootle, is a non-departmental organisation responsible for encouragement, regulation and enforcement of policy, as well as undertaking research related to workplace risk. It also investigates workplace incidents and industrial accidents, such as the 2005 explosion in Bunce field. The HSE was established in 1974 as a part of the Health and Safety at Work Act, and is an amalgamation of a number of pre-existing regulatory bodies (Priyadarshani et al., 2013).

    Responsibilities of the HSE:

    • • Support and facilitate the work of those persons responsible for health and safety objectives in the workplace.

    • • Ensure all applicable employees, government departments, employers and workers’ organisations are kept apprised of and advised on the implementation of health and safety matters and procedures.

    • • Recommend appropriate health and safety measures.

    • • Support and facilitate the creation of information, training modules, publications and research relevant to health and safety.

    2.7 United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

    The United States Department of Labour oversees the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) agency. The agency, currently lead by Acting Assistant Secretary of Labour Loren Sweatt, was signed into being in 1970 by then President Richard Nixon as a part of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act). The agency is tasked with guaranteeing healthy and safe working conditions through the enforcement of regulations and the provision of appropriate assistance, training, outreach or education. Research shows OSHA workplace safety inspections to be an efficient means of diminishing the rate and cost of workplace injury without negative impact on business outcomes.

    In accordance with the OSH act, OSHA enforces standards designed to protect employees in the Maritime, Agricultural and Construction General Industries. Standards include guardrail installation, prevention of exposure to disease or harmful chemicals, equipment guards, use of fall protection, and appropriate training in accessible languages, among many others. The OSH Act also includes a General Duty Clause that all employers are subject to. The clause dictates that employers operate workplaces free of noted hazards and acts as a failsafe for when a hazard is not explicitly addressed by an existing OSHA standard (Zekri, 2013).

    There are 252,000 active construction sites across the US employing 6.5 million workers, all of who are subject to potential hazards. The construction industry has the highest average fatal injury rate in the US. Risks for workers include trench collapse, electrical shock, repetitive motion injury, falls from heights, scaffolding collapse, and lack of appropriate personal protective equipment (Alasamri et al., 2012).

    This research uses a suggested safety management assessment framework to develop a recommended benchmark for establishing the level of construction safety. A questionnaire survey was used to determine specific aspects of construction safety performance in Sri Lanka.

    The outcomes of the research suggest that the following aspects must be accounted for when determining construction safety benchmarking: management measures, project nature, economic investment, management commitment, individual involvement, and implementation. Of these, commitment from management is the most influential factor as it encompasses the delegation of safety responsibilities and the implementation of safety policies throughout an organisation.

    The research notes that despite the need for safety to be a primary concern in the construction industry, it often takes second place in an environment that prioritises efficient and economical project completion over workplace health and safety. This mindset, which is particularly prevalent in developing countries, means that construction site safety is often only first considered after an incident takes place. The International Labour Organisation has found that 17% of injuries and 63% of fatalities at construction sites in Sri Lanka can be attributed to carelessness or negligence. Such statistics make clear that workplace safety at construction sites is not appropriately prioritised in Sri Lanka, when safety management should be of primary consideration (Awad, 2013).

    This research recommends a combination approach to safety performance measurement at construction sites using fuzzy comprehensive assessment methodology as well as AHP. The AHP model was utilised to determine measurement index weight. Then these indices were used in a multi-layer fuzzy comprehensive assessment to conclude construction site safety levels. The level of influence of each factor was quantified using grey correlation analysis. This enabled the researchers to accurately name the primary drivers behind the assigned safety level at the construction sites. By carrying out this research in three different sites, the methodology was validated through empirical means.

    Findings demonstrate that this methodology accurately estimates a construction site’s safety performance. This data can then be used to accurately inform management decisions regarding injury mitigation (Alolah et al., 2014).

    The conclusion of this research found that globally construction sites must improve their culture of safety in order to limit on-site injury and fatality. After examining eight developed and Arab nations, the research determined that Saudi Arabia has the worst record for mitigation against workplace injury and fatality, as well as significant difficulties when it comes to espousing a culture of safety on site. The research found three aspects that must be present to facilitate adoption of a safety culture: safety management system (environment/situational aspect), safety climate (personal aspect), and safety behaviour (behavioural aspect). These three aspects, as well as a fourth involving organisational aspects, feed into safety culture modelling.

    Despite the key role they play in the adoption of a safety culture, the research found that upper management (organisational aspect) is often not adequately included when developing policies and procedures governing safety at construction sites. This lack of managerial inclusion results in significant limitations within the Saudi construction situation, and therefore it is introduced as the fourth aspect in the development of a conceptual framework that also includes the three aspects first outlined. As Saudi Arabia was shown to have such a poor record regarding workplace injury and fatality, the conceptual framework was designed for testing within the Saudi environment. The outcomes of this research are aimed at businesses keen to determine the functioning of their own safety cultures and to identify means for improvement (Baig, 2001; Jannadi and Assaf, 1998).

    According to this research, there is a project cost resulting from injuries and accidents, and therefore there is economic importance to the health and safety of workers during construction projects (see Table 1). By mitigating against and avoiding injuries and accidents on construction sites, and particularly fatalities, it is possible to reduce the overall project cost. For that reason, this research evaluates those aspects that impact health and safety at Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) construction sites, as well as seeks to identify means to improve health and safety at such sites. Using a questionnaire methodology, the research examined the impact of three aspects: safety office, labourers, and management. The research also addresses the links between level of safety implemented and the size and duration of a construction business.

    Some researches such as Dehghani et al. (2020a), reported that power distribution systems in the US are commonly supported by wood utility poles. These assets require regular maintenance to enhance the reliability of power delivery to support many dependent functions of the society. The research founds that there is a general need for improved safety in KSA construction sites. Additionally, a positive relationship was established between older and larger construction businesses and the level of safety identified at the construction sites they operate (Rajgor et al., 2016).

    This research aims to use scientific methodology to create a safety performance (SP) framework that can be used to determine which key indicators can be used to identify declining or improving SP within public schools in Saudi Arabia. The methodology included a literature review, conceptual framework review, questionnaire and statistical analysis using the partial least squares approach. The literature review addressed which influencing factors should form the foundation of an evaluation framework for conceptual SP. The conceptual framework review was subject to adjustment by 18 experts in the field. The questionnaire was administered within public schools to 200 respondents. The analysis determined which foundational aspects to consider, and these were validated using the partial least squares method through coefficient assignment.

    After careful application of the research methodology, the study found the following aspects should be considered when creating SP evaluation frameworks for public schools in Saudi Arabia: safety learning and training; workforce safety culture; safety management and leadership; safety policy, procedures and processes; and safety performance (Sepehri and Sheikhalizadeh, 2019).

    This research specifically looked at industrial construction within Saudi Arabia’s Eastern Province to evaluate safety. The methodology included use of a checklist during a physical inspection, as well as a questionnaire to determine attitudes and knowledge towards safety and the adoption of a climate of safety. The results of the research determined a safety performance level index (SPLI) for each industry evaluated. The SPLI was found to be highly variable for support industries (where the average was calculated to be 84.0), while it was more uniform within the secondary group of industries with an average value of 81.25 (note: there was one outlier). Primary industries were found to have an average SLPI value of 91.48.

    In addition to SLPI, the research also calculated safety level scores (SLS) for each industry. The results found a high SLS among primary groups (average of 80%), while scores among the secondary industries were highly variable (average of 61%). The lowest average was found among the support industry group, with an average SLS of 47%. These scores demonstrate that industry size impacts SLS. Finally, the research found a statistically significant relationship between safety systems (performance level) and physical characteristics (safety level) (Azevedo and Reis, 2019; Pakdel and Ashrafi, 2019)


    The questionnaire was designed by the Safety Culture iAuditor website. After witnessing the tragedy of workplace incidents as a private investigator, founder Luke A near went on to recruit a team to help him develop a mobile solution for safety in the workplace. Safety Culture was originally founded as a small operation in 2004. As it gained momentum and broad adoption, Safety Culture has grown exponentially and is now headquartered in Townsville, Australia with global operations in Sydney, Kansas City and Manchester.

    Safety Culture’s flagship product, Safety Culture iAuditor, simplifies the auditing process by making it easy for anyone to effectively manage safety and quality from a mobile device. A simple, mobile solution means that frontline workers are able to quickly and easily report issues that might result in an incident due to inefficiency and limited visibility. Word of mouth about Safety Culture iAuditor and the growing industry movement toward safer, data-driven workplaces have added momentum to our growth.

    Today, Safety Culture iAuditor is the most used checklist inspection app in the world. It is currently used to perform millions of inspections in over 80 countries. Significant clients in the construction field are AECOM, JACOBS, REDROW and STANTEC (Akkuzova et al., 2018).

    The questionnaire contains 23 categories covering 69 questions about safety at construction sites. The questions are all based in the safety standards established by the UK HSE and the US OSHA. The categories used were selected based on recommendations from an article entitled Safety Measures during High-Rise Building Construction works (Khairul Alam). The article notes the following:

    “The most frequent problems/accidents related to safety in high-rise construction often include:

    Ladders; Falling Debris; Falling from Heights; Electrical shock & Machinery; Trips and Slips; Crane and hoist operation

    In addition, high-rise construction project should also have strong and powerful Project/Construction Management team who will monitor, control, and handle the safety matters. It is also their duty to strictly implement these safety plans, which normally and basically include the following:

    • • Safety management/hierarchy/organization

    • • Scaffolding (fixed and mobile) including ladders & platforms

    • • Electro-mechanical activities and controls

    • • Site status

    • • Temporary power supply and tools

    • • Health & welfares

    • • Storage condition”

    The questionnaire was used to inform interviews with safety officers at 19 towers under construction. Construction projects visited were as follows:

    The data collection interviews used a two-stage methodology:

    • 1. Ask the safety specialist about the importance of each category on a scale of 1 to 5.

    • 2. Ask the safety specialist whether safety rules are applied. This is a multiple-choice question with the following potential answers: ‘yes’, ‘no’, or ‘not applicable’.

    After completing data collection, data analysis was conducted using the Relative Importance Index (RII) Technique and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).

    3.1 Relative Importance Index (RII) Technique:

    This technique is used to determine the relative importance of the various levels of safety categories. Within this study, the same method is applied to various groups. The five-point scale ranged from 1 (very little degree of effect) to 5 (very high degree of effect). This scale was translated using the to relative importance indices (RII) for each factor as shown in the following equation:

    Where W is the weighting given to each factor by the respondents (ranging from 1 to 5), A is the highest weight (i.e. 5 in this case), and N is the total number of respondents. The higher the value of RII, the higher the importance placed to that cause of delays.

    3.2 Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)

    The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is a structured technique for organising and analysing complex decisions that uses a foundation of mathematics and psychology. It was developed by Thomas L. Saaty in the 1970s and has been extensively studied and refined since then.

    It has particular application in group decision making. Therefore, it is used around the world in a wide variety of decision situations and in a range of fields such as government, business, industry, healthcare, shipbuilding, and education.

    Rather than prescribing a “correct” decision, the AHP guides decision makers to determine which solution best suits their comprehension of the problem and their solution goals. It provides a comprehensive and rational framework for structuring a decision problem, for representing and quantifying its elements, for relating those elements to overall goals, and for evaluating alternative solutions.

    Users of the AHP first decompose their decision problem into a hierarchy of more easily comprehended sub-problems, each of which can be analysed independently. The elements of the hierarchy can relate to any aspect of the decision problem — tangible or intangible, carefully measured or roughly estimated, well or poorly understood —anything at all that applies to the decision at hand.

    Using the hierarchy, decision makers can systematically compare various elements in pairs with respect to their impact on an element above them in the hierarchy. These comparisons enable decision makers to use concrete data about the elements. However, in practice they also typically use their judgments about the elements' relative meaning and importance. It is the essence of the AHP that human judgments, and not just the underlying information, can be used in performing the evaluations.

    The AHP converts these evaluations to numerical values that can be processed and compared over the entire range of the problem. By assigned numerical value derived from the hierarchy, the AHP allows for elements that would otherwise be incomparable to be compared to one another in a rational and consistent way. This capability distinguishes AHP from other decision-making techniques (see Table 2, 3).

    In the final step of the process, numerical priorities are calculated for each of the decision alternatives. These numbers allow decision makers to clearly see the potential for each option to achieve the decision goal, which allows for straightforward consideration of the various courses of action (Table 4).


    First, the opinion of the safety specialist at the sites about the importance of the categories in the questionnaire out of 5and the results were as follows:

    Then the safety specialist was asked about the application of safety regulation that were under each category and the answer was as follows:

    Most of the questions were answered (NA was 2.90%) and this confirms that the choice of type of questions was identical to safety in high rise buildings. In general, the answer to yes was 47.83%. The answer was not 49%. This is a high percentage of non-application of safety regulation in High-rise building.

    After that, the relative importance index (RII) was applied to the categories to extract the importance of each class based on Safety Specialist opinion. The categories were ranked in the following table, based on the highest percentage of RII.

    The top 15 categories were chosen to apply AHP technique to extract weights for each category and then compare them to the questions that fall under each category.

    4.1 Elements Hierarchy

    To implement the AHP technique, we must divide the categories into two parts, divided according to the categories to be prepared before the construction pro-cess and the second category during the construction process it will become as in the following Figure 3:

    Each division has many aspects to evaluate in next pages we are explaining the Relative Weight of Calcula-tions (Weighting).

    4.2 Relative Weight Calculations (Weighting)

    4.2.1 Relative Weight Calculations

    Starting with first level the following analytic hier-archy process used to weight the Hierarchy elements.

    Then do the same for remaining elements (Table 5, 6).

    4.2.2 Final Weighted Hierarchy

    Here we note that weight of fire risk is high. And, the average of Yes is Very Good. Fire risk in good condi-tion.

    4.2.3 Compare Wight of Categories with the Application of Safety Regulation

    Here we note that weight of first Aid high and the average application of safety rules is middle. This makes this category in bad condition.

    Here we note that weight of Safety signs interme-diate and the average application of safety rules is me-dium. This makes this category well placed with good condition (Figure 4).

    Here we note that weight of Excavations / earth works intermediate and the average application of safe-ty rules is high. This makes this category well placed with Excellent condition. Here we note that weight of Demolition operation low and but it’s Not Applicable due to all construction Sites was Under Construction there is no Demolition Operation (Tables 8-10).

    Here from Tables (11-13) I found weight of Permits to work was very low. But the most sites do Work Per-mits with percentage 90 % but they didn’t follow up with process of permits.

    Here I found weight of PPE was very high. But the most sites provides PPE for labors only without visitors the reason of low average for total Question they didn’t check situation of PPE.

    Where the expenditure is determined by the build-ing costs per gross floor area (gfa), the revenues are based upon the lettable area (la). Feasibility of high rise is a matter of controlling the efficiency of the building. Efficiency is in this case defined by the ratio between lettable/leasable area and gross floor area. Not only the building process itself but also the high rise building in use may be compared to the making of a ship model in a bottle. Every piece of material has to pass the bottle-neck, making the logistics, the vertical transport, excep-tionally important.


    Profitability is one of the governing factors for a contractor to win a project and execute it as per the applicable standards. Considering the present scenario of the Indian construction industry, high-rise residential contracts are suffering from significant amount of cost and time overrun leading to losses incurred by construc-tion companies. This reflects the requirement of a holis-tic profit estimation model to understand the dissimilari-ties between the planned and actual estimates and to account for market conditions. This paper focusses on identifying the associated attributes and uncertain con-ditions which affect the profit size with the help of a case studies, determine the weightage of parameters in the estimation of profit size by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), and compute the size of profit by using linear regression models. Outcome of this paper is a cohesive framework to help estimators in computing the profit size more logically and correctly for high-rise residential project in the Indian context. The developed framework is applied on a residential high-rise project to understand the ap-plicability of the model.



    Attributes causing cost-overrun in high-rise residential projects.


    The methodology of building industry profit.


    Safety categories.


    Risk analysis of the project by AHP.


    Construction projects

    Profit of the building industry based on the safety by AHP

    Safety questioner

    Factors affecting the building industry

    Prepare pairwise comparison matrix & sum values of each column

    Divide each value by its column total & derive relative weight

    Weight result

    Element of before construction

    Effect of the economy in industry buildings

    Effect of Safety signs intermediate

    Effect of the final work of tall buildings in industry

    Element of during construction

    AHP analysis of the building industry


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