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ISSN : 1598-7248 (Print)
ISSN : 2234-6473 (Online)
Industrial Engineering & Management Systems Vol.20 No.2 pp.140-147
DOI : https://doi.org/10.7232/iems.2021.20.2.140

The Impact of Education on Business Opportunities for Women Entrepreneurs in Public & Private Television Advertisements in Pakistan

Rani Gul*, Sumaira Zakir, Imran Ali, Hafsa Karim, Rashid Hussain
Department of Education, University of Malakand, Chakdara, KPK, Pakistan
Department of Mass Communication, FSSH, BUITEMS, Quetta, Pakistan
Department of English, Fatima Jinnah Women University the Mall, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Social Workshop Department, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan
Department of Media and Communication Studies, Karakuram International University Gilgit Main Campus, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author, E-mail: rani.gul@uom.edu.pk
April 10, 2021 May 3, 2021 May 10, 2021

ABSTRACT


The emergence of private and foreign TV channels since 2002 have brought strategic changes in advertisement policies, especially in majority adds where the number of women portrayals adds are encouraged. This phenomenon leads more opportunities for women entrepreneurship in media business industry. The present study has investigated that how education play a role in enhancing more business opportunities for women entrepreneurs in advertising media. Using qualitative approach, a comparative analysis of PTV news (public) and GEO news (private) channels was done channel gives more prominence and frequency to women opportunities in their ads broadcasted in prime time (9 to 10 pm) during 30 days of simultaneous period in June 2020 amid CIVID-19 pandemic. The results shows that less educated females as media practitioners in advertisements may get less opportunities and educated females avail lucrative opportunities in Media Industry. Educational richness makes women more capable to influence more audience and grab their attention towards specific product/service with ample marketing skills and entrepreneurial eminency. Results also show that ratio of educated females in private channel advertisements is comparatively high and opportunities for highly educated female practitioners as entrepreneur are high. It is concluded that we need to support young women's entrepreneurial thinking and to facilitate creative business stratus and promote an enterprise-friendly culture and development of small and medium-sized businesses to achieve success, growth, and jobs (SMEs) for educated women entrepreneurs. The critical role education has now been widely recognised in fostering more business attitudes and behaviours. Education helps women to think creatively, to be successful problem solvers, to critically evaluate a business concept, to connect, to network, to lead and to assess every project.



초록


    1. INTRODUCTION

    The production and growth of women’s companies have contributed to the global economy and its societies (Munro and Cook, 2008). Women’s firms are projected in informal sectors to play even greater roles, between 1/4th and 1/3rd of all formal economy firms (Delaney, 2004). Enterprise refers to the capacity of a person to execute ideas. It requires the ability to schedule and execute projects to achieve goals, imagination, innovation, and risk making. A woman entrepreneur is an adult who has and runs a business with frequent personal financial risks, especially a commercial company (Bhuvaneshwari and Annapoorani, 2013).

    Enterprise women enter business markets, generating wealth and social change based on the ethics of collaboration, equality, and respect for one another. An integral characteristic of businesswomen, able to contribute values both in family life and social life, is a deep desire to do something good.

    Today, more women openly enter the business world from their conventional gender roles (Ayub et al., 2021a). It is prevalent and important for developed countries such as Pakistan where, despite the expected mitigation measures, poverty and unemployment issues continue to exist (Gul and Khilji, 2021). The activation of women’s entrepreneurship could solve these problems. Women businessmen will motivate and transform society with enormous potential through female labour market participation (Apergis and Pekka-Economou, 2010). Interestingly, female entrepreneurship increases a country's social and economic standing.

    The present study has investigated the impact of education in enhancing business opportunities for women entrepreneurs attached with advertising firms of private and public TV channels in Pakistan. This study is unique in the lenses that in media women are mostly portrayed as symbol of beauty to get attention of the audience. The representation of women as an “object” in advertisements has always been remained the subject of discussion for decades. Feminist studies have affirmed that television ads show men as dominant and rug, and women as sexy and submissive (Onodugo and Onodugo, 2015). A variety of factors have been identified in the early investigation of the role of education in empowering women entrepreneurs: a positive attitude towards starting a company (Gul et al., 2020b;Bhardwaj, 2014) a willingness to take risks to win; a desire for freedom (McGrath et al., 1992), power and autonomy; a need to increase social status (Meek et al., 2011). In addition, Millman et al. (2010) found that the relationship between education and the entrepreneurial intentions of women is significant. In addition, several scholars have concluded from evidence from Chinese HEI’s that educational and entrepreneurial intentions impact considerably on motivation and business intentions (Baum and Locke, 2004;Manev et al., 2005). Millman et al. (2010) also say that education should be effective education cannot be overlooked (Gul et al., 2020b).

    Based on the previous studies, the present study is leaded by the following questions.

    • 1. What type of business opportunities women entrepreneurs gets in public & private television advertisements in Pakistan?

    • 2. To what extent the educational status of the entrepreneur’s women enhances the business opportunities for women entrepreneurs at public & private television advertisements in Pakistan.

    2. LITERATURE REVIEW

    Television and radio have been remained an important form of communication since independence in the country. Pakistan television PTV is the only channel run under government policy where women appeared on TV with traditionally modest dresses and dupatta on their head until start of 21 first century (Sadiq and Ali, 2014). In 2002, during Musharraf regime, the liberalization of media in general lead to freedom of media in Pakistan and PAMERA issued about 87 licences to private TV channels and as well as allowed foreign television transmissions via satellite in Pakistan. Thus, providing opportunities for working and businesses to thousands of male and female in this filed.

    Media content often exhibits a high degree of stereotyping of how certain topics, people and groups are portrayed (Al-Dajani et al., 2013). By their systematic representations they create a standard of certain phenomena, form expectations addressed to specific individuals and their own aspirations, giving rise to the impression that the relevant contents, phenomena, actions and values are self-evident, perhaps even natural. This leads to the formation of a warped reality, a dependence on pleasure and entertainment, a reshaping of secondary cultural and intellectual illiteracy, and the extension of bad life models, attitudes, and false authorities (Gul et al., 2021). According to Ali et al. (2021) “Mass media are suggestive, they have a moral, cultural and emotional impact on public behaviour.” They argued that television images serve as a tool to shape our understanding about society and it creates ideas that will direct our behaviour. Advertisement is generally considered as basic source to generate revenue for media channels. Marketing and consumerism thoughts in media adds are generally considered to lead into women objectified adds which aims only to appeal more public attention to sell products. TV ads can be argued not only about the importance and usefulness of a product but also about the essential power of contemporary society which helps to create an understanding of identity. Publicity thus leads to acquired behaviour patterns.

    And the present study’s significance is to continue the HAZIR’s and NASIR’s research study through quantitative method and applying comparative study of PTV news (public) and GEO news (private) channels to analyse which channel gives more prominence and frequency to women opportunities in their ads broadcasted in prime time (9 to 10 pm) during 30 days of simultaneous period. There are more than 87 TV channels issued licence by PAMRA. The two popular TV channels from two different sector. PTV news (state run public channel) and GEO news (first private national channel) are considered in this comparative study.

    2.1 PTV (Pakistan Television Corporation Limited)

    Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) is a government TV channel. The Government of Pakistan retains all its shares. In October 1963, the decision was taken to create the General TV under the Pakistani Government (GOP). The GOP then signed an agreement to run two pilot stations in Pakistan with the Nippon Electric company of Japan. In November 1964, the first station came to Lahore. Television Promoters Limited was later established in 1965, and in 1967 it was transformed into a public limited company. In 1967, television centres in Karachi and Rawalpindi/Islamabad were established and in Peshawar and Quetta it was established in 1974. The transmission of PTV satellites is 24 hrs a day. It involves the transmission of ETV and PTV News.

    2.2 GEO News

    In 2002 the media became open and free, and GEO news began to be communicated and belong to an independent media company. On 14 August 2002, the channel started test transmissions on a regular basis from 1 October 2002. Geo is an Urdu word, meaning ‘live.’ Shakeel ur Rehman owns this media channel. It has put freedom of speech and expression to an unexpected level in Pakistan. When media equality arrived, women’s advertising also began to shift in contrast with the 2002 period before media liberalisation.

    2.3 Role of Education on Women Businesses

    Entrepreneurship for women in Pakistan is a new idea and recently won recognition. Micro and small businesses in developing countries such as Pakistan make a significant contribution to development and most women are involved with micro, cottage and small-scale businesses (Nayyar et al., 2007). However, the literacy rate for women in Pakistan has risen, and this rate of change has not greatly changed the lives of women (Ayub et al., 2021b). Women are surrounded by many socio-personal responsibilities in the masculine dominant society like ours (Saleem et al., 2021). In the media, if ladies work, the majority are contained in ads and dramas to perform acts and are mostly prevented from running a business or publicity company on their own. Men have more chances of starting their own business and more trust. The role of women is only to help men (Ranabhat, 1995). Therefore, inside TV channels, opportunities for women are limited. However, since the government takes serious steps to encourage the participation of women in economic activity through various governmental and NGOs, entrepreneurs have been improved (Gul and Khilji, 2021).

    Some scholars have tried to study the correlation between education and business performance. According to Bates (1990), high-trained entrepreneurs were possibly starting companies that remained active.

    Osirim (1990) referred to similar findings that contributed to effective entrepreneurship at a high level of education. This is also confirmed by a study conducted by Sinha (2003). Sinha (2003) revealed that most female contractors ask their parents or husbands for guidance in starting up their company. According to Bridge, O’Neill and Cromie (2003), women have more difficulties while both men and women are experiencing personal problems (Gul et al., 2020c). In comparison to men, the access to property, credit facilities, training and training facilities is lower (Katepa-Kalala, 1999).

    Winn (2004) concluded that to ensure a better education and support system, the essential reasons that women excel in independent companies must be recognised. Unique credit, grant, funds, enterprise centres, entrepreneurship awards, counselling (Gul et al., 2020a), education, consultative support, knowledge products (Gul and Rafique, 2017) and web sites can be provided to women entrepreneurs. Knowledge of latest technological developments, its business know-how and the person’s level of education are key factors that influence the company. In Pakistan the literacy rate of women in comparison to males is poor (Gul and Reba, 2017;Gul et al., 2021).

    Many women lack the training required to promote successful entrepreneurship in developing countries. They are unable to do research and undergo the training they need for emerging technology or are unable to use them (Bhardwaj and Malhotra, 2013). In the other hand, they have families with severe maternal responsibilities and unable to cope with inelastic household commitments (Bukhari et al., 2021;Otengo, 2011). Langowitz and Minniti (2007) found that entrepreneurship in many countries is becoming an increasingly important source of work for women. The study shows that the higher education degrees of these WEs are one of the significant characteristics that many prominent women entrepreneurs have in common.

    3. METHODOLOGY

    The research is based on qualitative method and the basic techniques in the study was content analysis. Researchers have observed simultaneously the advertisements shown in prime time i.e., 9 PM to 10 PM of both the sectors: PTV from public sector and GEO for private sector. The data were collected during COVID-19 pandemic in the month of June 2020. These channels were approached and details of the women participated in different advertisements were collected. The primary data in this qualitative research was collected by analysing and realizing how prominently and frequently women portrayal adds are broadcasted in an hour of prime time thirty days. The collected data were analysed and the results are presented using descriptive statistics on SPSS.

    4. DATA ANALYSIS

    4.1 Working Females in Different Advertisements of TV Channels

    The researchers started watching advertisements of Geo News Channels and Pakistan Television Channel from 26 June 2020 till 26 July 2020. It was observed that Geo news ads that there was female more than male. While in the advertisements of PTV Channels, there was male dominancy in the ads and female were very less in number. Results are presented in Graph 1 and Graph 2.

    4.1.1 Geo news

    Researchers took this news channel as the private news channel and checked that whether there was more female dominancy in the ads or not. Findings shows that there was more balance in the ads but still the ration of the female in the ads were more than of males. 46.8% balance showed in the ads while 32.9% females and 20.3% males were there in the ads. This percentage shows that female ration in the ads were more than that of male.

    4.1.2 PTV News

    Researchers took this news channel as the public figure and measure the frequency and prominence of the females and males in the ads. Findings most probably showed that there were more male than females and there was less balance than that of Geo news ads. 39.9% balance, while female showed up only 3.1% in the ads and 56.6% showed up highest percentage of males in the ads.

    4.2 Influences of Education on Business Opportunities for Women

    The data in Table 1 show that female with SSC certificate work mostly in those advertisements which are made for promotion purposes of agricultural products or vaccination of different viral diseases. These ads are made at local level and are played at regional level. Female with intermediate level ae represented in Ads for public health related issues, public welfare messages at local/ regional level. Women having bachelor’s degrees are more attached with promotional advertisements at national level like service message, election campaigns, promotional products of international and national companies. Results also show that majority of the women are attached with this business. Table further depicts that women having higher education degrees are mostly engaged in national & international level advertisements running for educational, informative messages with impact and international top branded products. While women with MS/PhD. degrees are engaged in advertisements having highly informative & educational base messages/services with greater impact at national and international level. Previous studies have affirmed that the message conveyed through advertising appeals, influences the purchasing decisions of consumers (Marland, 2008) while if that message is conveyed through educated persons, may influence more consumers (Atieno, 2009). Not merely enhancing the ratio of consumers, however acceleration of business opportunities for female entrepreneurs is also being analysed through this study.

    It can also be seen that women entrepreneur who have bachelor’s degree are greater in number followed by intermediate level. To test if women entrepreneur level of education played a role in getting more business opportunities in business media, a Chi-square test was performed at5 percent margin of error.

    Since .066 is greater than alpha value of .05, therefore academic qualification and advertisement opportunities in business media are independent of each other. Education level determine the opportunities received by women entrepreneur in business media. The calculated chi-square value of 15.671a and P value of .214 is compared with table value that shows that education level determines the type and number of businesswomen entrepreneur get different opportunities of business in media industry and particularly in advertisements. It cannot be said that highly educated women get involved in those type of business projects which produce their own advertisements and less educated women are just portrayed as object in different advertisements to get attention of the audience. Many researchers found that highly skilled entrepreneurs are likely to develop companies that are still operational. Otengo (2011) referred to similar findings that contributed to effective entrepreneurship at a high level of education.

    5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

    These results presenting clear stance that educated females in Media practices particularly in advertisement can also avail lucrative opportunities in Media Industry. The results study shows that how uneducated females as media practitioners in advertisements may get less opportunities to fully address, covey or communicate message to target audience. Same efforts are required for women entrepreneurs in field of media industry to get in. Educational richness makes women more capable to influence more audience and grab their attention towards specific product/ service with ample marketing skills and entrepreneurial eminency (Gul et al., 2021b), business opportunities can be grabbed by women entrepreneurs.

    Field of advertisement in media industry can be proved profit / Business making for female entrepreneurs if they have educational capabilities to make ideas true and influence consumer’s attention and behaviour. Results show that ratio of educated females in Advertisements is comparatively high and opportunities for highly educated female practitioners as entrepreneur are high. As studies show that females working in different type of Ads are having different educational background. Therefore, merely objectification of female body and associating women’s worth with her body appearance cannot be referred as sole purpose of any business. Many research articles shows that female prominence in the ads were more than of male because now a days to catch the eyes of audience, ads showed on television mostly have females in them. But there was a contradiction in the findings. Private channel (GEO news) showed that there were more females in the ads and that was exactly matched with the hypothesis, but public sector (PTV news) showed the other side of the picture. The percentage of the males in the ads were more than that of female and it contradicts the hypothesis.

    It is concluded that we need to support young women's entrepreneurial thinking and to facilitate creative business stratus and promote an enterprise-friendly culture and development of small and medium-sized businesses to achieve success, growth, and jobs (SMEs). Public agencies and private organisations can play a concrete and realistic role by addressing young entrepreneurs' needs and motivations (DeMartino and Barbato, 2005;Ehigie and Umoren 2003). The critical role education has now been widely recognised in fostering more business attitudes and behaviours. Education helps women to think creatively, to be successful problem solvers, to critically evaluate a business concept, to connect, to network, to lead and to assess every project. The outcomes of the present studies suggested that education play a major role in enabling women entrepreneurs to pursue their business from anywhere and at any time more confidently. Educated women entrepreneurs may play a big role in the economy of a country. As previous studies have affirmed large gender-based disparities in the accessibility of education and legal mechanisms are lacked which could allow women entrepreneurs to effectively use their right to education. The study suggested that Improved educational opportunities for female entrepreneurs may increase their opportunities for participation at international level as well as significantly improve the performance of femaleowned businesses. This study recommended that policymakers and other stakeholders formulate and implement strategies that may promote equal educational opportunities for women.

    Figure

    IEMS-20-2-140_G1.gif

    Gender wise distribution of male and female in advertisements of private and public channels.

    IEMS-20-2-140_G2.gif

    Balance among male female working in advertisements of private and public channels.

    Table

    The education level of women entrepreneurs

    Chi square test of Academic qualification and opportunities of advertisements in business media

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